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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Anda, Robert F.; Fleisher, Vladimir I.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Whitfield, Charles L.; Dube, Shanta R.; Williamson, David F.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2004

    Objective: We examined the relation between eight types of adverse childhood experience (ACE) and three indicators of impaired worker performance (serious job problems, financial problems, and absenteeism).

    Methods: We analyzed data collected for the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study from 9633 currently employed adult members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan in San Diego.

    Results: Strong graded relations were found between the ACE Score (total number of ACE categories experienced) and each measure of impaired worker performance (p <.001). We found strong evidence that the relation between ACE Score and worker performance was mediated by interpersonal relationship problems, emotional distress, somatic symptoms, and substance abuse.

    Conclusions: The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences on the workforce impose major human and economic costs that are preventable. These costs merit attention from the business community in conjunction with specialists in occupational medicine and public health (author abstract)

    Objective: We examined the relation between eight types of adverse childhood experience (ACE) and three indicators of impaired worker performance (serious job problems, financial problems, and absenteeism).

    Methods: We analyzed data collected for the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study from 9633 currently employed adult members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan in San Diego.

    Results: Strong graded relations were found between the ACE Score (total number of ACE categories experienced) and each measure of impaired worker performance (p <.001). We found strong evidence that the relation between ACE Score and worker performance was mediated by interpersonal relationship problems, emotional distress, somatic symptoms, and substance abuse.

    Conclusions: The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences on the workforce impose major human and economic costs that are preventable. These costs merit attention from the business community in conjunction with specialists in occupational medicine and public health (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schwab, Rebekah; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2014

    This presentation describes a Family Employment Program (FEP) study conducted to explore the relationship between TANF recipients' adverse childhood experiences and challenges faced in adulthood relative to achieving self-sufficiency.

    This presentation was given at the 2014 National Association of Welfare Research and Statistics (NAWRS) Annual Workshop.

    This presentation describes a Family Employment Program (FEP) study conducted to explore the relationship between TANF recipients' adverse childhood experiences and challenges faced in adulthood relative to achieving self-sufficiency.

    This presentation was given at the 2014 National Association of Welfare Research and Statistics (NAWRS) Annual Workshop.

  • Individual Author: Murray, D.W.; Rosanbalm, K.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Introduction Adult caregivers such as parents, teachers, coaches, and other mentors play a critical role in shaping and supporting self-regulation development from birth through young adulthood through an interactive process called “co-regulation.” Purpose This is one of six snapshots focused on different age groups based on a series of reports on Self-Regulation and Toxic Stress prepared for the Administration for Children and Families (ACF). This snapshot summarized key concepts about self-regulation development and intervention for high-school aged youth. It is designed tobe a helpful resource for practitioners and educators interested in promoting self-regulation for this high-school age group. Visit the Toxic Stress and Self-Regulation Reports page for more information. Highlights Self-regulation skills developing in young adults: 

    • Goal setting and commitment
    • Maintaining orientation toward the future
    • Planning and organizing time and tasks to achieve goals
    • Self-monitoring and self-...

    Introduction Adult caregivers such as parents, teachers, coaches, and other mentors play a critical role in shaping and supporting self-regulation development from birth through young adulthood through an interactive process called “co-regulation.” Purpose This is one of six snapshots focused on different age groups based on a series of reports on Self-Regulation and Toxic Stress prepared for the Administration for Children and Families (ACF). This snapshot summarized key concepts about self-regulation development and intervention for high-school aged youth. It is designed tobe a helpful resource for practitioners and educators interested in promoting self-regulation for this high-school age group. Visit the Toxic Stress and Self-Regulation Reports page for more information. Highlights Self-regulation skills developing in young adults: 

    • Goal setting and commitment
    • Maintaining orientation toward the future
    • Planning and organizing time and tasks to achieve goals
    • Self-monitoring and self-reinforcement in pursuit of goals
    • Effective decision-making in the context of strong emotion and peer influence
    • Complex problem-solving considering consequences and others’ perspectives
    • Recognizing and accepting emotions
    • Tolerating distress
    • Using healthy coping strategies to manage stress
    • Using empathy and concern for others to guide goals and decisions

     Key considerations for promoting self-regulation in young adults: 

    • Communicate the relevance of self-regulation for employment success and self-sufficiency
    • Teach specific self-regulation skills in youth development, healthy relationships, and employment programs
    • Involve partners and peers in supporting youth’s self-regulation
    • Identify ways to support the self-regulation capacity of youth program staff including mentors and job coaches. (Author introduction)

     

  • Individual Author: Chilton, Mariana; Rabinowich, Jenny
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    The causes and contexts of food insecurity among children in the U.S. are poorly understood because the prevalence of food insecurity at the child level is low compared to the prevalence of household food insecurity. In addition, caregivers may be reluctant to admit their children may not be getting enough food due to shame or fear they might lose custody of their children.
     
    Based on our ongoing qualitative research with mothers of young children, we suggest that food security among children is related to adverse childhood experiences of caregivers. This translates into poor mental and physical health in adolescence and adulthood, which can lead to inability to secure and maintain meaningful employment that pays a living wage.
     
    In this paper we propose that researchers shift the framework for understanding food insecurity in the United States to adopt a life course approach. This demands we pay greater attention to the lifelong consequences of exposure to trauma or toxic stress--exposure to violence, rape, abuse and neglect, and housing, food, and other...

    The causes and contexts of food insecurity among children in the U.S. are poorly understood because the prevalence of food insecurity at the child level is low compared to the prevalence of household food insecurity. In addition, caregivers may be reluctant to admit their children may not be getting enough food due to shame or fear they might lose custody of their children.
     
    Based on our ongoing qualitative research with mothers of young children, we suggest that food security among children is related to adverse childhood experiences of caregivers. This translates into poor mental and physical health in adolescence and adulthood, which can lead to inability to secure and maintain meaningful employment that pays a living wage.
     
    In this paper we propose that researchers shift the framework for understanding food insecurity in the United States to adopt a life course approach. This demands we pay greater attention to the lifelong consequences of exposure to trauma or toxic stress--exposure to violence, rape, abuse and neglect, and housing, food, and other forms of deprivation--during childhood. We then describe three case studies of women from our ongoing study to describe a variety of toxic stress exposures and how they have an impact on a woman's earning potential, her mental health, and attitudes toward raising children. Each woman describes her exposure to violence and deprivation as a child and adolescent, describes experiences with child hunger, and explains how her experiences have shaped her ability to nourish her children. We describe ways in which we can shift the nature of research investigations on food insecurity, and provide recommendations for policy-oriented solutions regarding income support programs, early intervention programs, child and adult mental health services, and violence prevention programs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lantos, Hannah; Wilkinson, Andra
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2016

    Posted by Hannah Lantos and Andra Wilkinson, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse and Child Trends Staff

     

    Today we hear the phrase 'trauma-informed care' frequently at government agencies, school districts, job training programs, hospitals, and among researchers. The surge is significant. An Internet search engine review shows that between 1986 and 2000, the term comes up 54 times. Between 2001 and 2015, it comes up 2,540 times. Why the interest now and what does it mean for self-sufficiency researchers and practitioners?

    In the last two decades, research has begun to show how prevalent trauma is and how those experiences, particularly in childhood, can impact long-term health and well-being. In 1998, a seminal paper on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs...

    Posted by Hannah Lantos and Andra Wilkinson, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse and Child Trends Staff

     

    Today we hear the phrase 'trauma-informed care' frequently at government agencies, school districts, job training programs, hospitals, and among researchers. The surge is significant. An Internet search engine review shows that between 1986 and 2000, the term comes up 54 times. Between 2001 and 2015, it comes up 2,540 times. Why the interest now and what does it mean for self-sufficiency researchers and practitioners?

    In the last two decades, research has begun to show how prevalent trauma is and how those experiences, particularly in childhood, can impact long-term health and well-being. In 1998, a seminal paper on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) analyzed a broad sample of Californians and found high rates of housing instability, physical or sexual abuse, or parental discord during childhood. More than 50% of the respondents reported experiencing at least one of these ACEs, while 6.2% reported experiencing four or more. In 2014, a subsequent ACEs study held focus groups with low-income urban young adults to see whether the original list of ACEs was salient to them. They identified the following additional adverse experiences: living in a single-parent home, exposure to violence, criminal behavior, personal victimization, bullying, economic hardship, and discrimination.

    In the last decade there has also been a surge of neuroscientific and psychological research on childhood stress. Referred to in the literature is toxic stress—it is triggered when the body’s stress response system is over-activated to the point where health can be compromised. When children experience stress that reaches toxic levels (through either acute or chronic exposure), this can lead to feelings of terror, helplessness, and loss of trust—all symptoms of trauma. When children have repeated or sustained elevated levels of stress and no adult to help them learn how to regulate these stressors (or when adults are the cause of the elevated stress), children’s brain development can be seriously impacted. Fewer neuronal connections may be made, thus impacting the child’s behavior, self-regulation, and impulsivity. 

    Young people who are from disadvantaged backgrounds (e.g., in foster care, homeless, or involved in the juvenile justice system), are from low-income families, and/or are members of a racial or ethnic minorities report higher rates of potentially traumatic experiences. Research has highlighted the potential consequences of childhood trauma later in life on both physical and mental health, which can then hinder professional success and self-sufficiency. For example, research has focused on how children who have experienced trauma are sometimes less able to effectively control their attention, remember details, plan, or be flexible in their thinking. These skills are often referred to as executive functioning skills and interventions that take a trauma-informed approach to employment or education supports focus on practicing them. These specific skills can improve self-sufficiency in populations of young people who are much more likely to be at risk for trauma. 
     
    To take a trauma-informed approach when working with young people, programs must recognize a history of trauma; treat the trauma symptoms, if possible; respond to behavior that may be shaped by that trauma; and make serious, intentional efforts to minimize the chance of re-traumatization. For example, a recent evaluation of a program in Tennessee designed to help youth from foster care or juvenile justice programs transition to adulthood focuses on life skills, mental health (including trauma-focused therapy), education, housing, and employment. Evaluators of this program found that participation in one year of services translated to positive outcomes in earnings and economic well-being, among other outcomes. 
     
    Even when research doesn’t describe trauma-informed approaches explicitly, it often highlights the potential for programs to support and improve the life outcomes of young people who may have experienced trauma. Successful programs minimize re-traumatization and provide young people opportunities to learn how to cope and develop essential skills for self-sufficiency. Research also highlights the need for explicit discussions of trauma as well as sensitive measures of ongoing trauma and stress to better understand the role these play as mediators between program participation and outcomes for youth. It is important for practitioners to understand this developing literature so that they can support young people in having as healthy a transition to adulthood as possible given their histories of exposure to potentially traumatizing experiences.
     
    Learn more about trauma among youth in the SSRC Library:
     
    A recently posted SSRC Selection on trauma, youth, and self-sufficiency includes more in-depth descriptions of resources. Additionally, the SSRC Library contains numerous reports and stakeholder resources about trauma and trauma-informed approaches, including:

    For more resources, check out the SSRC Library and subscribe to SSRC or follow us on Twitter to receive updates about upcoming events, new library materials on self-sufficiency topics of interest to you and more.

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