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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Amedee, George
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2005

    This paper examines the status of the transportation related problems associated with TANF's success. The paper draws on findings from previous studies on journey to work and welfare to work guidelines and strategies being employed to address the transportation challenges of TANF recipients. Data collected from a survey of 1,688 TANF recipients as part of the Mississippi TANF Implementation Study, the experiences of Washington State's Department of Transportation On-the-Job Training and Supportive Services and information collected on funding commitments to this program nationwide are also presented in a discussion of the link between transportation and jobs. A large majority of TANF recipients are largely young minority females with children who lack timely and dependable transportation from central city and rural areas where 2/3 of them reside to suburban areas that are becoming the primary focal point for the growth in employment nationwide. To adequately address the needs of TANF workers, the study found that both rural and urban area services must address transportation...

    This paper examines the status of the transportation related problems associated with TANF's success. The paper draws on findings from previous studies on journey to work and welfare to work guidelines and strategies being employed to address the transportation challenges of TANF recipients. Data collected from a survey of 1,688 TANF recipients as part of the Mississippi TANF Implementation Study, the experiences of Washington State's Department of Transportation On-the-Job Training and Supportive Services and information collected on funding commitments to this program nationwide are also presented in a discussion of the link between transportation and jobs. A large majority of TANF recipients are largely young minority females with children who lack timely and dependable transportation from central city and rural areas where 2/3 of them reside to suburban areas that are becoming the primary focal point for the growth in employment nationwide. To adequately address the needs of TANF workers, the study found that both rural and urban area services must address transportation problems associated with trip chaining, temporal mismatch, and information gap issues. The study also found that states have responded with a wide range of creative and innovative programs to address job access and reverse commute needs. In spite of proliferation of new transportation strategies, the most serious problems facing TANF recipients that was identified in this study is finding and maintaining decent paying jobs. The ability to maintain work was also identified as a problem. The study recommends the expansion of nontraditional jobs for females in heavy construction and technology jobs under the DOT OJT Program and expansion of funding to ease barriers in transitioning from welfare to work in heavy construction areas. Other recommendations include an increase in funds for job access and reverse commute programs, building day care facilities near employment locations in the suburbs, and opening up housing and public transportation opportunities for low income families in suburban communities. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Waller, Margy; Hughes, Mark A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    Transportation assistance for low-income workers is complex, expensive, and rife with unintended consequences. Policymakers confuse ends and means when job access strategies are too focused on public transit systems. The policy challenge is helping low-income workers get to distant jobs on difficult schedules, but too often both policymakers and decisionmakers act as if the challenge is devising a way to make public transit "good enough" to serve the reverse commutes of low-income workers. This represents both a bias and a blind spot. The bias lies in our willingness to consign poor people to barely functioning public systems from which higher-income citizens routinely withdraw (as in public schools, public health, public safety, and public space). The bias is expressed in the overheard comment of one senior official from a national public transit organization, "Show me a thirty-year-old man on a bus,; and I'll show you a failure."

    The blind spot is cars. In most cases, the shortest distance between a poor person and a job is along a line driven...

    Transportation assistance for low-income workers is complex, expensive, and rife with unintended consequences. Policymakers confuse ends and means when job access strategies are too focused on public transit systems. The policy challenge is helping low-income workers get to distant jobs on difficult schedules, but too often both policymakers and decisionmakers act as if the challenge is devising a way to make public transit "good enough" to serve the reverse commutes of low-income workers. This represents both a bias and a blind spot. The bias lies in our willingness to consign poor people to barely functioning public systems from which higher-income citizens routinely withdraw (as in public schools, public health, public safety, and public space). The bias is expressed in the overheard comment of one senior official from a national public transit organization, "Show me a thirty-year-old man on a bus,; and I'll show you a failure."

    The blind spot is cars. In most cases, the shortest distance between a poor person and a job is along a line driven in a car. Prosperity in America has always been strongly related to mobility and poor people work hard for access to opportunities. For both the rural and inner-city poor, access means being able to reach the prosperous suburbs of our booming metropolitan economies, and mobility means having the private automobile necessary for the trip. The most important response to the policy challenge of job access for those leaving welfare is the continued and expanded use of cars by low-income workers. Across the country, state and local decisionmakers are inventing new programs to do just that and devising new ways that public funds can help.

    This report presents survey and field research on the ten states with the largest (as of January 1998) numbers of families receiving assistance under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Block Grant (TANF), which is a mix of federal and matching state funds. (Throughout this report, we use TANF to refer to both state and federal funds.) These ten states collectively represent two-thirds of the national caseload: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington. The authors surveyed officials in a variety of; relevant state departments and interviewed local officials and public transit operators in cities and rural counties; throughout the ten states. This research informs both their analysis of transportation assistance and recommendations to policymakers. (author abstract)