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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Lewit, Eugene M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    Between 7 million and 10 million children in the United States lack health insurance. Many of these uninsured children experience difficulty obtaining needed health care. To expand health insurance coverage for children, in August 1997, Congress enacted the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) as part of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. CHIP, also known as Title XXI of the Social Security Act, offers states new federal funding in the form of block grants to provide "child health assistance to uninsured children in low-income families in an effective and efficient manner that is coordinated with other sources of health benefits coverage for children." The program is authorized for 10 years and is expected to provide insurance coverage for millions of currently uninsured children. Federal expenditures on child health assistance under the law are estimated to total $40 billion to $50 billion over the life of the legislation.

    The enactment of CHIP represents the most significant funding increase for children's health insurance coverage since the enactment of...

    Between 7 million and 10 million children in the United States lack health insurance. Many of these uninsured children experience difficulty obtaining needed health care. To expand health insurance coverage for children, in August 1997, Congress enacted the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) as part of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. CHIP, also known as Title XXI of the Social Security Act, offers states new federal funding in the form of block grants to provide "child health assistance to uninsured children in low-income families in an effective and efficient manner that is coordinated with other sources of health benefits coverage for children." The program is authorized for 10 years and is expected to provide insurance coverage for millions of currently uninsured children. Federal expenditures on child health assistance under the law are estimated to total $40 billion to $50 billion over the life of the legislation.

    The enactment of CHIP represents the most significant funding increase for children's health insurance coverage since the enactment of Medicaid in 1965. Medicaid, a means-tested entitlement program financed by the state and federal governments and administered by the states, covered approximately 17.5 million children in 1995. Medicaid covers approximately two-thirds of all poor children and one-quarter of the children in families with incomes between 100% and 200% of the federal poverty level. Despite expansion of the Medicaid program in recent years, many children in low-income families remain uninsured. CHIP is intended to address this problem.

    Although participating states must provide some funding, and states must meet a number of requirements to be eligible for federal CHIP funding, CHIP legislation gives states considerable flexibility in implementing the program. This short article reviews the basic decisions that states must make when implementing their CHIP programs and reports on the decisions that states participating in the program have made, as reflected in the plans they had submitted to the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) as of April 1, 1998. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Smith, Vernon; Roberts, Dennis; Marks, Caryn; Rousseau, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    This data snapshot provides the latest data on Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) enrollment and policy trends nationally and across the states through June 2011, based on survey responses and data provided by CHIP directors in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report finds that in June 2011, the number of children enrolled in CHIP reached 5.3 million. From June 2010 to June 2011, an additional 178,000 children enrolled in CHIP programs across the country, a rate of growth (3.5 percent) similar to the prior annual period (3.3 percent). While enrollment continues to grow, enrollment growth in the program appears to have moderated since the start of the recession. (author abstract)

    This resource was updated as of June 2012.

     

    This data snapshot provides the latest data on Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) enrollment and policy trends nationally and across the states through June 2011, based on survey responses and data provided by CHIP directors in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report finds that in June 2011, the number of children enrolled in CHIP reached 5.3 million. From June 2010 to June 2011, an additional 178,000 children enrolled in CHIP programs across the country, a rate of growth (3.5 percent) similar to the prior annual period (3.3 percent). While enrollment continues to grow, enrollment growth in the program appears to have moderated since the start of the recession. (author abstract)

    This resource was updated as of June 2012.

     

  • Individual Author: Shaefer, H. Luke; Grogan, Colleen M.; Pollack, Harold A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    This paper examines families of children who transition from private to public health insurance. These transitions include, but are not limited to, transitions that constitute crowd-out. We pool longitudinal panels from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) covering 1990 to 2005. The annual rate of children who transition from private to public coverage more than doubled over this period, although it remains small. Transitioning children in recent years are typically in working families with median incomes of around 200% of poverty. Children who transition from private to public coverage are more likely to belong to minority groups, to have lower incomes, and to be in poorer health than children remaining privately insured. Public coverage now provides important protections for low-income working families, especially those with children in poor health. These findings underscore the need to implement post-health-reform policies with an eye towards possible adverse selection into public programs. (author abstract)

    This paper examines families of children who transition from private to public health insurance. These transitions include, but are not limited to, transitions that constitute crowd-out. We pool longitudinal panels from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) covering 1990 to 2005. The annual rate of children who transition from private to public coverage more than doubled over this period, although it remains small. Transitioning children in recent years are typically in working families with median incomes of around 200% of poverty. Children who transition from private to public coverage are more likely to belong to minority groups, to have lower incomes, and to be in poorer health than children remaining privately insured. Public coverage now provides important protections for low-income working families, especially those with children in poor health. These findings underscore the need to implement post-health-reform policies with an eye towards possible adverse selection into public programs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Simpson, Lisa; Fairbrother, Gerry; Touschner, Joseph; Guyer, Jocelyn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    The Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) of 2009 has the potential to transform children’s health care in the United States. The authors of this report analyze selected provisions of the legislation that involve outreach and enrollment, as well as child health quality and measurement. Using input from interviews with a range of stakeholders and a panel of experts, the report provides a set of recommendations for the federal government officials charged with implementing CHIPRA. Recommendations include: giving funding priority to states that will adopt or maintain key simplifications, providing clarity on the relationship between express-lane procedures (which allow states to use relevant findings from other public programs when determining children’s enrollment eligibility) and error measurement, ensuring quality measures focus on priority health needs for children, and building quality measurement and improvement capabilities into electronic health information systems, among others. (author abstract)

    The Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) of 2009 has the potential to transform children’s health care in the United States. The authors of this report analyze selected provisions of the legislation that involve outreach and enrollment, as well as child health quality and measurement. Using input from interviews with a range of stakeholders and a panel of experts, the report provides a set of recommendations for the federal government officials charged with implementing CHIPRA. Recommendations include: giving funding priority to states that will adopt or maintain key simplifications, providing clarity on the relationship between express-lane procedures (which allow states to use relevant findings from other public programs when determining children’s enrollment eligibility) and error measurement, ensuring quality measures focus on priority health needs for children, and building quality measurement and improvement capabilities into electronic health information systems, among others. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: McMorrow, Stacey; Kenney, Genevieve; Waidmann, Timothy; Anderson, Nathaniel
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Objective: To provide updated information on the potential substitution of public for private coverage among low-income children by examining the type of coverage held by children before they enrolled in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and exploring the extent to which children covered by CHIP had access to private coverage while they were enrolled.

    Methods: We conducted a major household telephone survey in 2012 of enrollees and disenrollees in CHIP in 10 states. We used the survey responses and Medicaid/CHIP administrative data to estimate the coverage distribution of all new enrollees in the 12 months before CHIP enrollment and to identify children who may have had access to employer coverage through one of their parents while enrolled in CHIP.

    Results: About 13% of new enrollees had any private coverage in the 12 months before enrolling in CHIP, and most were found to have lost that coverage as a result of parental job loss. About 40% of CHIP enrollees had a parent with an employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) policy, but only half reported that the...

    Objective: To provide updated information on the potential substitution of public for private coverage among low-income children by examining the type of coverage held by children before they enrolled in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and exploring the extent to which children covered by CHIP had access to private coverage while they were enrolled.

    Methods: We conducted a major household telephone survey in 2012 of enrollees and disenrollees in CHIP in 10 states. We used the survey responses and Medicaid/CHIP administrative data to estimate the coverage distribution of all new enrollees in the 12 months before CHIP enrollment and to identify children who may have had access to employer coverage through one of their parents while enrolled in CHIP.

    Results: About 13% of new enrollees had any private coverage in the 12 months before enrolling in CHIP, and most were found to have lost that coverage as a result of parental job loss. About 40% of CHIP enrollees had a parent with an employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) policy, but only half reported that the policy could cover the child. Approximately 30% of new enrollees had public coverage during the year before but were uninsured just before enrolling.

    Conclusions: Access to private coverage among CHIP enrollees is relatively limited. Furthermore, even when there is potential access to ESI, affordability is a serious concern for parents, making it possible that many children with access to ESI would remain uninsured in the absence of CHIP. (Author abstract)

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