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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Kaplan, April; Ivory, Copeland
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2001

    Since the 1996 enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), the press has abounded with reports of decreasing welfare caseloads. However, as the number of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cases decreases, child-only cases are becoming an increasing proportion of the total TANF caseload. Much of the discussion on welfare reform research has focused on state efforts to meet work requirements and reduce caseloads. Although this research has been critical to program design and implementation, the child-only case population has often been overlooked. More recently, however, research on these families has emerged.

    ...

    This Issue Note focuses on policy choices that states may want to consider when addressing child-only cases. It also examines state flexibility in TANF policies to prevent TANF family cases from turning into child-only cases, outreach efforts for immigrant children, support services for children in child-only cases, and support services for adults in child-only cases. (author...

    Since the 1996 enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), the press has abounded with reports of decreasing welfare caseloads. However, as the number of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cases decreases, child-only cases are becoming an increasing proportion of the total TANF caseload. Much of the discussion on welfare reform research has focused on state efforts to meet work requirements and reduce caseloads. Although this research has been critical to program design and implementation, the child-only case population has often been overlooked. More recently, however, research on these families has emerged.

    ...

    This Issue Note focuses on policy choices that states may want to consider when addressing child-only cases. It also examines state flexibility in TANF policies to prevent TANF family cases from turning into child-only cases, outreach efforts for immigrant children, support services for children in child-only cases, and support services for adults in child-only cases. (author introduction)

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

     

  • Individual Author: Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2000

    Plunging caseloads and soaring employment among single mothers lead many to judge welfare reform a stunning success. Lost in the caseload counts and political rhetoric is the subject of our chapter: welfare reform and children. We sort through conflicting theory and evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children’s well-being and development.

    A brief examination of recent trends in national indicators of potential problems shows that the sky has not fallen. Poverty rates are down, as are teen crime and fertility as well as substantiated cases of child maltreatment. However, the dearth of timely and consistent state level data on indicators of child well-being precludes a serious analysis of the role of welfare reform, the booming economy and other recent changes for all but a handful of these indicators.

    We turn instead to lessons that can be gleaned from a set of welfare-reform random assignment experiments conducted during the 1990s. Experiments provide strong evidence on the impacts of the welfare reform packages under evaluation relative to the old...

    Plunging caseloads and soaring employment among single mothers lead many to judge welfare reform a stunning success. Lost in the caseload counts and political rhetoric is the subject of our chapter: welfare reform and children. We sort through conflicting theory and evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children’s well-being and development.

    A brief examination of recent trends in national indicators of potential problems shows that the sky has not fallen. Poverty rates are down, as are teen crime and fertility as well as substantiated cases of child maltreatment. However, the dearth of timely and consistent state level data on indicators of child well-being precludes a serious analysis of the role of welfare reform, the booming economy and other recent changes for all but a handful of these indicators.

    We turn instead to lessons that can be gleaned from a set of welfare-reform random assignment experiments conducted during the 1990s. Experiments provide strong evidence on the impacts of the welfare reform packages under evaluation relative to the old AFDC system. Regrettably, the reform packages evaluated in the experiments do not span the diverse set of reforms instituted by states in the late 1990s.

    Our conclusions regarding likely child impacts depend crucially on the ages of the children studied. In the case of elementary-school children, the picture is fairly positive. We find strong evidence that welfare reform  can be a potent force for enhancing achievement and positive behavior.  When welfare reform packages do not appear to help younger children, there is little evidence of harm, even in the one experiment with time limits. If anything, the beneficial impacts are strongest for children in families with longer histories of welfare receipt. On the other hand, in the case of adolescents, more limited evidence suggests that welfare reforms may cause detrimental increases in school problems and risky behavior. The jury is still out on impacts on infants and toddlers.

    Distinguishing among programs, we find that reforms with work mandates but few supports (e.g., wage and childcare subsidies) for working mothers appear to be significantly less beneficial for elementary-school-aged children than programs with work supports. Furthermore, and here the evidence is also less definitive, reforms with positive impacts on children appeared  to operate more through changes outside the family – e.g., in childcare and after-school programs – than through changes in parental mental health, family routines or other aspects of the home environment. Finally, poverty, maternal depression, domestic violence and children’s developmental problems are alarmingly common, even among families offered a generous package of work supports.

    Our list of policy recommendations includes ways of better supporting work, providing after-school and community programs for older children, addressing safety-net issues for families with barriers to stable, full-time employment, and encouraging fathers to become more involved with their children. More generally, we hope that the debate over the future of welfare reform will pay more attention to children’s well-being, to the diverse situations in which children in low-income families find themselves, and to the very different developmental needs of children of different ages. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes—with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes. (author abstract)

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes—with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    In Pennsylvania, one child in six lives in a rural county – nearly 500,000 kids leading lives that both sharply contrast and closely mirror those of their urban and suburban counterparts. Like all kids, rural children have basic needs that their families and communities must provide – food, shelter, education, and a learning-rich environment. For most kids, rural and otherwise, those needs are happily met. But in Pennsylvania's rural communities, barriers of distance and scarce resources can challenge families and communities to provide those necessities. In these circumstances, Pennsylvania's rural children face unique hardships that can inhibit their healthy growth. Understanding these circumstances is key to taking corrective policy action to enhance the health, education, and well-being of Pennsylvania’s rural children. (author introduction)

    In Pennsylvania, one child in six lives in a rural county – nearly 500,000 kids leading lives that both sharply contrast and closely mirror those of their urban and suburban counterparts. Like all kids, rural children have basic needs that their families and communities must provide – food, shelter, education, and a learning-rich environment. For most kids, rural and otherwise, those needs are happily met. But in Pennsylvania's rural communities, barriers of distance and scarce resources can challenge families and communities to provide those necessities. In these circumstances, Pennsylvania's rural children face unique hardships that can inhibit their healthy growth. Understanding these circumstances is key to taking corrective policy action to enhance the health, education, and well-being of Pennsylvania’s rural children. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Kanaiaupuni, Shawn Malia
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    Immigrant status carries considerable challenges to survival and mobility in U.S. society. As an emerging dimension of social stratification, legal status further complicates the situation, influencing not only immigrants but also their children. Using data collected in Houston and San Diego, this study examines the intergenerational health consequences of undocumented status for child well-being. The main findings support my argument that children with undocumented immigrant parents suffer higher risks of poverty and poor health than children in legal households, and that children in mixed-status households are equally disadvantaged despite having a legal adult at home. In contrast, children in legal households are wealthier and have more food, better living quarters, better health insurance status, and better health status. The drawbacks of being raised in families with one or more unauthorized residents offer further evidence of a growing policy dilemma about access to health care and the general well-being of this vulnerable population of children. Addressing these needs...

    Immigrant status carries considerable challenges to survival and mobility in U.S. society. As an emerging dimension of social stratification, legal status further complicates the situation, influencing not only immigrants but also their children. Using data collected in Houston and San Diego, this study examines the intergenerational health consequences of undocumented status for child well-being. The main findings support my argument that children with undocumented immigrant parents suffer higher risks of poverty and poor health than children in legal households, and that children in mixed-status households are equally disadvantaged despite having a legal adult at home. In contrast, children in legal households are wealthier and have more food, better living quarters, better health insurance status, and better health status. The drawbacks of being raised in families with one or more unauthorized residents offer further evidence of a growing policy dilemma about access to health care and the general well-being of this vulnerable population of children. Addressing these needs carries particular significance for the future of a growing Chicana/o population, among whom these findings document an observable health deficit. As such, this deficit, which may also exist among other Latino groups experiencing high rates of undocumented migration and uncertain legal status outcomes, contributes to existing health disparities and racial and ethnic inequality in the United States. (author abstract)

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