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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Eberts, Randall W.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    The purpose of this paper is to provide preliminary information about the design of a pilot project to test the efficacy of profiling and referring welfare-to-work participants. Welfare reform requires welfare recipients, with few exceptions, to participate in work activities and ultimately become economically self-sufficient. Welfare recipients possess a wide variation in job readiness skills, ranging from those who are ready and able to work to those who face significant barriers to employment. The challenge of the local administrator of welfare-to-work programs is to target services to those who need them the most. Yet, most programs provide the same services to all participants, regardless of their past work history or skills. Profiling is a management tool that statistically identifies individuals as to the probability that they will obtain employment. The probability is derived from a statistical model using information commonly collected at enrollment interviews. The model estimates the relationship between an individual's propensity to find and hold a job and that person'...

    The purpose of this paper is to provide preliminary information about the design of a pilot project to test the efficacy of profiling and referring welfare-to-work participants. Welfare reform requires welfare recipients, with few exceptions, to participate in work activities and ultimately become economically self-sufficient. Welfare recipients possess a wide variation in job readiness skills, ranging from those who are ready and able to work to those who face significant barriers to employment. The challenge of the local administrator of welfare-to-work programs is to target services to those who need them the most. Yet, most programs provide the same services to all participants, regardless of their past work history or skills. Profiling is a management tool that statistically identifies individuals as to the probability that they will obtain employment. The probability is derived from a statistical model using information commonly collected at enrollment interviews. The model estimates the relationship between an individual's propensity to find and hold a job and that person's attributes, work and welfare histories, and local labor market conditions. The paper describes the model and shows how it can be incorporated into existing welfare-to-work programs that emphasize work-related activities. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Derr, Michelle; McCay, Jonathan; Kauff, Jacqueline F.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    New evidence from neuroscience, psychology, and other behavioral sciences suggests that TANF programs may be able to improve participants’ outcomes by applying the science of self-regulation. Self-regulation refers to a foundational set of skills and personality factors that enable people to control their thoughts, emotions, and behavior. It is what helps people set goals, make plans, solve problems, reason, organize, prioritize, initiate tasks, manage time, and persist in and monitor their actions. Mathematica engaged four TANF programs implementing new interventions informed by evidence on self-regulation and designed to help participants reach their personal and job-related goals in a process to improve the quality of the interventions and their implementation. The process, called Learn, Innovate, Improve (LI2), brings social science theory, research evidence, and practice wisdom together, with the goal of creating innovations that are practical, effective, scalable, and sustainable. (Author introduction)

     

    New evidence from neuroscience, psychology, and other behavioral sciences suggests that TANF programs may be able to improve participants’ outcomes by applying the science of self-regulation. Self-regulation refers to a foundational set of skills and personality factors that enable people to control their thoughts, emotions, and behavior. It is what helps people set goals, make plans, solve problems, reason, organize, prioritize, initiate tasks, manage time, and persist in and monitor their actions. Mathematica engaged four TANF programs implementing new interventions informed by evidence on self-regulation and designed to help participants reach their personal and job-related goals in a process to improve the quality of the interventions and their implementation. The process, called Learn, Innovate, Improve (LI2), brings social science theory, research evidence, and practice wisdom together, with the goal of creating innovations that are practical, effective, scalable, and sustainable. (Author introduction)

     

  • Individual Author: Sherman, Rachel
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2003

    Many recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) face significant barriers to employment, including severe mental or physical disabilities, that may prevent them from fulfilling the TANF work requirements. Without the appropriate intensive services and supports, these individuals may be sanctioned or may reach the time limit on federal assistance before they are able to achieve self-sufficiency. These individuals may be included in the 20% of the caseload that states may exempt from the federal time limits, but at least some of these individuals may be better served by securing cash benefits under the federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI provides need-based cash benefits to individuals 65 and older and individuals with disabilities, including disabled children The SSI program can provide these individuals with more appropriate services and long-term income support, without the work requirements and time limits associated with TANF. Recently, federal legislation has tightened eligibility criteria particularly as it relates to alcohol and...

    Many recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) face significant barriers to employment, including severe mental or physical disabilities, that may prevent them from fulfilling the TANF work requirements. Without the appropriate intensive services and supports, these individuals may be sanctioned or may reach the time limit on federal assistance before they are able to achieve self-sufficiency. These individuals may be included in the 20% of the caseload that states may exempt from the federal time limits, but at least some of these individuals may be better served by securing cash benefits under the federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI provides need-based cash benefits to individuals 65 and older and individuals with disabilities, including disabled children The SSI program can provide these individuals with more appropriate services and long-term income support, without the work requirements and time limits associated with TANF. Recently, federal legislation has tightened eligibility criteria particularly as it relates to alcohol and substance abuse and to the definition of children’s disabilities; however, SSI remains an option for a number of TANF recipients and applicants who may meet the federal disability criteria.

    This Resources for Welfare Decisions provides information and resources to help TANF agencies in their efforts to move eligible TANF recipients with disabilities to the SSI system. (author abstract)

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

  • Individual Author: Lynn, Suzanne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, welfare was no longer held to be an entitlement under federal law. This basic policy shift created the opportunity for states to change the way disputes between welfare recipients and program administrators would be resolved. Wisconsin was unique among the states in taking up this challenge, creating a novel complaint-resolution process as part of its welfare reform program called Wisconsin Works, or W-2. The state’s aim was to simplify and streamline the old fair hearing system, and it provided that the agencies administering the W-2 program would be responsible for conducting reviews of their own decisions, with a central state agency hearing appeals.

    This paper reports on the implementation of the complaint resolution process during the first three years of W-2 in Milwaukee County, a place where the operation of W-2 has been contracted out by the state to five private agencies. It focuses on several key issues, including how the tensions between caseworker discretion and...

    With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, welfare was no longer held to be an entitlement under federal law. This basic policy shift created the opportunity for states to change the way disputes between welfare recipients and program administrators would be resolved. Wisconsin was unique among the states in taking up this challenge, creating a novel complaint-resolution process as part of its welfare reform program called Wisconsin Works, or W-2. The state’s aim was to simplify and streamline the old fair hearing system, and it provided that the agencies administering the W-2 program would be responsible for conducting reviews of their own decisions, with a central state agency hearing appeals.

    This paper reports on the implementation of the complaint resolution process during the first three years of W-2 in Milwaukee County, a place where the operation of W-2 has been contracted out by the state to five private agencies. It focuses on several key issues, including how the tensions between caseworker discretion and accountability are being resolved; how a process that is subject to legal scrutiny can operate within a model of decentralized program administration; and how the goal of informality and speed of process can be reconciled with the need to treat clients fairly and equitably. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Riccucci, Norma M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2005

    This article examines the impact of street-level bureaucrats on the implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families policies in the State of Michigan. Michigan's welfare programs are highly centralized, leaving counties very little formal discretion to run their programs. The formal signals sent by Michigan officials around welfare reform revolve around work first—immediate job placement over human capital investment. In a two-step analysis, including Analysis of Variance techniques, an examination of three local sites within Michigan indicates that street-level bureaucrats in welfare offices do not see their own priorities in the context of the formal goal of welfare in Michigan (i.e., work first). Moreover, the research indicates that there is variation across the three counties within the state. The findings of this research ultimately suggest that the discretionary power of street-level bureaucrats is an important determinant in the implementation of public policy, and that reference point of their discretionary power is not the supervisor but, in fact, the...

    This article examines the impact of street-level bureaucrats on the implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families policies in the State of Michigan. Michigan's welfare programs are highly centralized, leaving counties very little formal discretion to run their programs. The formal signals sent by Michigan officials around welfare reform revolve around work first—immediate job placement over human capital investment. In a two-step analysis, including Analysis of Variance techniques, an examination of three local sites within Michigan indicates that street-level bureaucrats in welfare offices do not see their own priorities in the context of the formal goal of welfare in Michigan (i.e., work first). Moreover, the research indicates that there is variation across the three counties within the state. The findings of this research ultimately suggest that the discretionary power of street-level bureaucrats is an important determinant in the implementation of public policy, and that reference point of their discretionary power is not the supervisor but, in fact, the client. (Author abstract)

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