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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Schoppelrey, Susan L.; Martinez, Marcia; Jang, Soo Mi
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2005

    The present article reviews evidence related to the prevalence of substance use disorders among welfare recipients, the relationship of substance use to welfare receipt and identifies several key strategies states are using to address substance use disorders as barriers to employment among TANF recipients. The article identifies promising approaches and develops recommendations for future research and policy related to substance abuse and other barriers to employment. (Author abstract)

    The present article reviews evidence related to the prevalence of substance use disorders among welfare recipients, the relationship of substance use to welfare receipt and identifies several key strategies states are using to address substance use disorders as barriers to employment among TANF recipients. The article identifies promising approaches and develops recommendations for future research and policy related to substance abuse and other barriers to employment. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: van Olphen, Juliana ; Freudenberg, Nicholas
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2004

    Substance abuse is a significant health and social problem in many low income urban communities. Finding appropriate help for drug users has been identified as a significant barrier to reducing the harm from drug abuse. This report presents findings from a survey of service providers in the Central and East Harlem communities, New York City, conducted in 2000 to identify policy obstacles that impeded clients’ attempts to overcome substance use and related problems. Policies can affect substance users by making access to drug treatment more difficult or by imposing unrealistic expectations on substance users for eligibility for benefit programs. Respondents to the survey were asked to rate 30 specific policies as harmful or helpful to their clients and to assess how the policies acted as barriers or facilitators to getting services and reducing drug use. Eleven policies in the areas of drug treatment, corrections, and Medicaid were rated as harmful to their clients by more than 50% of the respondents. We discuss the implications of these and other findings for drug users’ ability...

    Substance abuse is a significant health and social problem in many low income urban communities. Finding appropriate help for drug users has been identified as a significant barrier to reducing the harm from drug abuse. This report presents findings from a survey of service providers in the Central and East Harlem communities, New York City, conducted in 2000 to identify policy obstacles that impeded clients’ attempts to overcome substance use and related problems. Policies can affect substance users by making access to drug treatment more difficult or by imposing unrealistic expectations on substance users for eligibility for benefit programs. Respondents to the survey were asked to rate 30 specific policies as harmful or helpful to their clients and to assess how the policies acted as barriers or facilitators to getting services and reducing drug use. Eleven policies in the areas of drug treatment, corrections, and Medicaid were rated as harmful to their clients by more than 50% of the respondents. We discuss the implications of these and other findings for drug users’ ability to seek and receive help for their problems. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; Riordan, Annette; McCrady, Barbara S.; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Blanchard, Kimberly A.; Irwin, Thomas W.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Many of the families remaining on welfare caseloads face significant barriers to employability. Among the most significant of these is substance abuse. States are struggling to develop innovative strategies to effectively address substance abuse in the context of welfare reform. Some states have attempted to integrate substance abuse treatment into their welfare employment programs, but there are almost no data to guide states about what program features are most effective. One central problem any system will need to address is the difficulties most substance abusers have in entering and remaining in treatment. Studies have consistently demonstrated that those receiving substance abuse treatment have better employment outcomes (Nakashian & Moore, 2000), but it is necessary for clients to remain in treatment in order to achieve these effects (Wickizer et al, in press). 
    
    The purpose of this report is to present preliminary findings of a study conducted in New Jersey comparing the rates of entry and retention in substance abuse treatment for...

    Many of the families remaining on welfare caseloads face significant barriers to employability. Among the most significant of these is substance abuse. States are struggling to develop innovative strategies to effectively address substance abuse in the context of welfare reform. Some states have attempted to integrate substance abuse treatment into their welfare employment programs, but there are almost no data to guide states about what program features are most effective. One central problem any system will need to address is the difficulties most substance abusers have in entering and remaining in treatment. Studies have consistently demonstrated that those receiving substance abuse treatment have better employment outcomes (Nakashian & Moore, 2000), but it is necessary for clients to remain in treatment in order to achieve these effects (Wickizer et al, in press). 
    
    The purpose of this report is to present preliminary findings of a study conducted in New Jersey comparing the rates of entry and retention in substance abuse treatment for two contrasting intervention approaches: Care Coordination and Intensive Case Management. Preliminary findings clearly indicate the benefits of providing intensive case management services over a more limited triage and referral system. Clients referred to substance abuse treatment programs using the Intensive Case Management approach were much more likely to enter substance abuse treatment and were especially more likely to continue attending outpatient treatment sessions. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morgenstern, Jon; Riordan, Annette; Dephilippis, Dominick; Irwin, Thomas W.; Blanchard, Kimberly A.; McCrady, Barbara S.; McVeigh, Katharine H.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    As welfare caseloads decline, states increasingly are faced with the challenge of addressing the needs of hard-to-serve families who experience a variety of barriers to employability. Substance abuse is one of the major problems affecting hard-to-serve families. Since welfare reform was adopted, estimates suggest that 15% to 35% of welfare recipients have a substance abuse problem. Although substance abuse among welfare recipients is thought to be a prevalent and serious problem, it is widely recognized that individuals with substance use disorders often fail to acknowledge that they have a problem or seek treatment. Therefore, developing effective screening, identification, and referral strategies are necessary components of any state plan to address substance abuse among welfare recipients. 
    
    The purpose of this report is to describe results of two approaches to screening for substance abuse among TANF recipients in New Jersey (NJ). Results of this report suggest that a generic approach to screening in welfare settings — one that relies primarily...

    As welfare caseloads decline, states increasingly are faced with the challenge of addressing the needs of hard-to-serve families who experience a variety of barriers to employability. Substance abuse is one of the major problems affecting hard-to-serve families. Since welfare reform was adopted, estimates suggest that 15% to 35% of welfare recipients have a substance abuse problem. Although substance abuse among welfare recipients is thought to be a prevalent and serious problem, it is widely recognized that individuals with substance use disorders often fail to acknowledge that they have a problem or seek treatment. Therefore, developing effective screening, identification, and referral strategies are necessary components of any state plan to address substance abuse among welfare recipients. 
    
    The purpose of this report is to describe results of two approaches to screening for substance abuse among TANF recipients in New Jersey (NJ). Results of this report suggest that a generic approach to screening in welfare settings — one that relies primarily on caseworkers administering paper and pencil measures as part of benefit eligibility determination — is useful, but that specialized screening programs can substantially increase case identification rates. This study employed a program evaluation rather than an experimental design. Specifically, the first approach was implemented and outcomes were monitored. Based on an evaluation of these findings, a second approach was designed and implemented in an attempt to boost case identification rates. The first approach was implemented statewide in NJ beginning in 1998. In this approach, welfare caseworkers administered a brief paper and pencil measure to screen for alcohol and other drug use problems to all individuals being interviewed for initial or redetermination of TANF benefits. Those screening positive were then referred to a specially trained addiction counselor for further assessment. This approach is similar to that used by most states (e.g., California, Kansas, New York) attempting to implement innovative programs to address substance abuse among welfare recipients. The key features of this typical approach are: front-line caseworkers conduct the screening, screening occurs for all recipients at the point of benefit determination, and there is a reliance on paper and pencil screening measures. We label this approach "generic screening." (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kirby, Gretchen; Anderson, Jacquelyn
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2000

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation (PRWORA) Act of 1996 places a premium on cash-assistance recipients’ efforts to work and holds recipients and state programs accountable for increasing self-sufficiency. The work requirements and time limits under the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) system provide little room for work exemptions and create an incentive to explore the needs of “harder-to-serve” populations—including those with substance abuse problems—so that they, too, may move into work and be assisted on a path toward self-sufficiency. TANF program administrators who hope to meet future work-participation requirements and prevent significant time-limit exemptions may want to start making policy and programmatic choices now to better prepare this population for work in the long run.

    This guide provides TANF program administrators and staff with information to help devise a strategy for identifying and addressing the needs of recipients with substance abuse problems. The guide has four sections:

    • Section I:...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation (PRWORA) Act of 1996 places a premium on cash-assistance recipients’ efforts to work and holds recipients and state programs accountable for increasing self-sufficiency. The work requirements and time limits under the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) system provide little room for work exemptions and create an incentive to explore the needs of “harder-to-serve” populations—including those with substance abuse problems—so that they, too, may move into work and be assisted on a path toward self-sufficiency. TANF program administrators who hope to meet future work-participation requirements and prevent significant time-limit exemptions may want to start making policy and programmatic choices now to better prepare this population for work in the long run.

    This guide provides TANF program administrators and staff with information to help devise a strategy for identifying and addressing the needs of recipients with substance abuse problems. The guide has four sections:

    • Section I: Understanding the Substance-Abuse Problem. Discusses the prevalence of substance abuse among welfare recipients and the benefits of addressing these problems in the context of the welfare program.
    • Section II: Identifying Welfare Recipients with Substance-Abuse Problems. Presents a series of decision points for developing a process to identify TANF recipients with substance-abuse problems.
    • Section III: Treating Substance Abuse. Provides background information on treatment-related issues such as treatment options, outcomes, expectations and service delivery as well as the resources available for treatment.
    • Section IV: Integrating Treatment into a Work-Focused Welfare Program. Outlines the policy and programmatic decisions for integrating an approach to treatment into the welfare program and discusses the points to consider when coordinating welfare and treatment services.

    Additional organizations and resources that can provide greater detail on the concepts and decisions outlined in this report are described throughout the text and in the resource section in Appendix A. (author introduction)

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