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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Strawn, Julie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Career pathways help people upgrade their skills and advance to better jobs over time through a stackable set of education and training steps and credentials within a particular industry. States and localities have increasingly adopted the career pathways framework to better connect previously “siloed” education and training services, strengthen links to employer needs, and support participant success. As States expand and improve SNAP Employment and Training (SNAP E&T) 50 percent reimbursement (50-50) programs, they should consider how E&T can be incorporated into existing career pathways systems to get better results for their participants. State SNAP agencies can do this by—

    • Engaging in career pathways conversations already happening at the State and local level to think broadly about how SNAP E&T participants and services can best be integrated into State and regional pathway strategies.
    • Thinking strategically about the most efficient use of SNAP E&T funds—how can E&T build on what already exists to create comprehensive, evidence-based...

    Career pathways help people upgrade their skills and advance to better jobs over time through a stackable set of education and training steps and credentials within a particular industry. States and localities have increasingly adopted the career pathways framework to better connect previously “siloed” education and training services, strengthen links to employer needs, and support participant success. As States expand and improve SNAP Employment and Training (SNAP E&T) 50 percent reimbursement (50-50) programs, they should consider how E&T can be incorporated into existing career pathways systems to get better results for their participants. State SNAP agencies can do this by—

    • Engaging in career pathways conversations already happening at the State and local level to think broadly about how SNAP E&T participants and services can best be integrated into State and regional pathway strategies.
    • Thinking strategically about the most efficient use of SNAP E&T funds—how can E&T build on what already exists to create comprehensive, evidence-based pathway approaches that improve participant outcomes? This might include, for example, increasing career coaching, providing support services, or adding contextualized basic skills instruction through integrated education and training.
    • Choosing SNAP E&T 50-50 partners who are already implementing career pathways well and helping to expand their services to more E&T participants.

    States may find that an added benefit to integrating SNAP E&T services and participants into career pathway efforts is a stronger alignment of E&T with the workforce system. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) emphasizes career pathways as well as related strategies, such as integrated education and training and industry sector partnerships. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: DeRenzis, Brooke; Kaz, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T), a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Services (FNS), supports employment and training activities to increase self-sufficiency for SNAP participants. SNAP E&T can expand opportunities for low-income people to enhance their skills, credentials, careers, and ultimately, their families'; financial well-being. Yet few states have fully realized SNAP E&T's potential to provide skill-building opportunities. In fact, many states are leaving federal SNAP E&T dollars on the table, which could instead be used to provide education, training, and support services.

    In 2015, National Skills Coalition (NSC) and Seattle Jobs Initiative (SJI) partnered to help four states expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs. This policy brief shares recommendations for states based on lessons learned from our work with Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, and Oregon. Specifically, this brief makes the following recommendations for those looking to expand skills-...

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T), a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Services (FNS), supports employment and training activities to increase self-sufficiency for SNAP participants. SNAP E&T can expand opportunities for low-income people to enhance their skills, credentials, careers, and ultimately, their families'; financial well-being. Yet few states have fully realized SNAP E&T's potential to provide skill-building opportunities. In fact, many states are leaving federal SNAP E&T dollars on the table, which could instead be used to provide education, training, and support services.

    In 2015, National Skills Coalition (NSC) and Seattle Jobs Initiative (SJI) partnered to help four states expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs. This policy brief shares recommendations for states based on lessons learned from our work with Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, and Oregon. Specifically, this brief makes the following recommendations for those looking to expand skills-based SNAP E&T programs at the state level:

    • Staff and stakeholders should work with SNAP E&T agency leadership to develop a vision for a skills-focused program and implement a strategy to achieve that vision.

    • States should use pilot programs to test and refine strategies for expanding SNAP E&T programs.

    • SNAP E&T programs should build on the strengths and experience of existing workforce development efforts, and should align SNAP E&T with other programs, such as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).

    • SNAP E&T programs should use federal funding and administrative tools to partner with community colleges and community-based organizations as service providers.

    The brief also identifies a set of common challenges in developing skills-based SNAP E&T programs and makes recommendations for how state SNAP E&T agencies can address them. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Johnson, Melissa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Georgia is missing out on key opportunities to strengthen its workforce because it does not fully leverage the potential of safety net programs Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T).

    Georgia policymakers can better optimize federal funding to educate and train more residents earning low incomes, which will help meet the state’s need for a skilled and educated workforce. Georgia needs to produce an estimated 250,000 additional graduates with a certificate, associate’s degree or bachelor’s degree to meet its workforce needs by 2025. Focusing on Georgians with low incomes will have long-term benefits for the state. As these Georgians secure in-demand skills they are less likely to need to rely on public benefits. (Author abstract)

    Georgia is missing out on key opportunities to strengthen its workforce because it does not fully leverage the potential of safety net programs Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T).

    Georgia policymakers can better optimize federal funding to educate and train more residents earning low incomes, which will help meet the state’s need for a skilled and educated workforce. Georgia needs to produce an estimated 250,000 additional graduates with a certificate, associate’s degree or bachelor’s degree to meet its workforce needs by 2025. Focusing on Georgians with low incomes will have long-term benefits for the state. As these Georgians secure in-demand skills they are less likely to need to rely on public benefits. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ma, Connie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    How should the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) support community colleges and counties in joining the Federal SNAP Employment & Training (SNAP E&T) program’s third-party match model to leverage the 50/50 funding stream? This report contains recommended strategies for how the NCCCS should participate in the third-party match model of SNAP E&T 50/50 funding. (Author abstract)

    How should the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) support community colleges and counties in joining the Federal SNAP Employment & Training (SNAP E&T) program’s third-party match model to leverage the 50/50 funding stream? This report contains recommended strategies for how the NCCCS should participate in the third-party match model of SNAP E&T 50/50 funding. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kaz, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    This report provides an extensive overview of Washington’s Basic Food Employment & Training (BFET) program and, more broadly, of federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment & Training (SNAP E&T).

    BFET is viewed as a national model for expanding SNAP E&T programs by building on the existing service delivery capacity of community colleges and community-based workforce training providers. This paper covers the history and development of the BFET program; the nuts and bolts of how the BFET program operates; how the BFET program is utilized by community colleges and community-based organizations; and a short overview of program outcomes. The paper summarizes the best practices that have emerged from BFET and offers recommendations to other states and localities in expanding SNAP E&T programs. (Author abstract)

    This report provides an extensive overview of Washington’s Basic Food Employment & Training (BFET) program and, more broadly, of federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment & Training (SNAP E&T).

    BFET is viewed as a national model for expanding SNAP E&T programs by building on the existing service delivery capacity of community colleges and community-based workforce training providers. This paper covers the history and development of the BFET program; the nuts and bolts of how the BFET program operates; how the BFET program is utilized by community colleges and community-based organizations; and a short overview of program outcomes. The paper summarizes the best practices that have emerged from BFET and offers recommendations to other states and localities in expanding SNAP E&T programs. (Author abstract)

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