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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Campanola, Mary; Rehberg, Sheryl; Brodka, Stan
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2009

    The Office of Family Assistance began the Rural Communities Initiative in 2008, and many rural areas expressed an interest in learning more about how to utilize technology in their TANF programs and in their communities. This Webinar included presentations from Ms. Mary Campanola, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Rural Development, Telecommunications Program; Ms. Sheryl Rehberg, Executive Director, North Florida Workforce Development Board; and Mr. Stan Brodka, Director of Sales, KeyTrain. (author abstract)

    The Office of Family Assistance began the Rural Communities Initiative in 2008, and many rural areas expressed an interest in learning more about how to utilize technology in their TANF programs and in their communities. This Webinar included presentations from Ms. Mary Campanola, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Rural Development, Telecommunications Program; Ms. Sheryl Rehberg, Executive Director, North Florida Workforce Development Board; and Mr. Stan Brodka, Director of Sales, KeyTrain. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hellerstine, Judith K.; Neumark, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    Blacks in the United States are poorer than whites and have much lower employment rates. “Place-based” policies seek to improve the labor markets in which blacks – especially low-income urban blacks – tend to reside. We first review the literature on spatial mismatch, which provides much of the basis for place-based policies. New evidence demonstrates an important racial dimension to spatial mismatch, and this “racial mismatch” suggests that simply creating more jobs where blacks live, or moving blacks to where jobs are located, is unlikely to make a major dent in black employment problems. We also discuss new evidence of labor market networks that are to some extent stratified by race, which may help explain racial mismatch. We then turn to evidence on place-based policies. Many of these, such as enterprise zones and Moving to Opportunity (MTO), are largely ineffective in increasing employment, likely because spatial mismatch is not the core problem facing urban blacks, and because, in the case of MTO, the role of labor market networks was weakened. Finally, we discuss policies...

    Blacks in the United States are poorer than whites and have much lower employment rates. “Place-based” policies seek to improve the labor markets in which blacks – especially low-income urban blacks – tend to reside. We first review the literature on spatial mismatch, which provides much of the basis for place-based policies. New evidence demonstrates an important racial dimension to spatial mismatch, and this “racial mismatch” suggests that simply creating more jobs where blacks live, or moving blacks to where jobs are located, is unlikely to make a major dent in black employment problems. We also discuss new evidence of labor market networks that are to some extent stratified by race, which may help explain racial mismatch. We then turn to evidence on place-based policies. Many of these, such as enterprise zones and Moving to Opportunity (MTO), are largely ineffective in increasing employment, likely because spatial mismatch is not the core problem facing urban blacks, and because, in the case of MTO, the role of labor market networks was weakened. Finally, we discuss policies focused on place that also target incentives and other expenditures on the residents of the targeted locations, which may do more to take advantage of labor market networks. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Farrell, Mary; Martinson, Karin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Bridge to Employment in the Healthcare Industry program, designed by the San Diego Workforce Partnership and operated by three community-based organizations in San Diego County, California. Bridge to Employment is one promising effort to help low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. It is one of nine career pathways programs being evaluated under the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Bridge to Employment program consisted of five components: (1) Assessments to determine eligibility for training programs; (2) Navigation and case management services to help students choose their training and address barriers to participation; (3) Individual training account (ITA) vouchers to cover the cost of training; (4) Supportive services for transportation, child care, and other services; and (5) Employment services to help participants find employment...

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Bridge to Employment in the Healthcare Industry program, designed by the San Diego Workforce Partnership and operated by three community-based organizations in San Diego County, California. Bridge to Employment is one promising effort to help low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. It is one of nine career pathways programs being evaluated under the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Bridge to Employment program consisted of five components: (1) Assessments to determine eligibility for training programs; (2) Navigation and case management services to help students choose their training and address barriers to participation; (3) Individual training account (ITA) vouchers to cover the cost of training; (4) Supportive services for transportation, child care, and other services; and (5) Employment services to help participants find employment after training. Using a rigorous research design, the study found that Bridge to Employment increased the credentials its participants received and increased employment in a healthcare occupation within the 18-month follow-up period. Future reports will examine whether these effects translate into economic gains in the workplace in the longer term. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Unruh, Rachel; Dahlk, Kira
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    America’s cities have the potential to be the engines of full national economic recovery and growth. Realizing this potential requires investments not only in places, but also in people. The federal government makes a number of investments in the physical capital of urban communities, including public housing and transportation development. These initiatives have the potential to pay off not just in terms of improved community resources, but also in terms of job opportunities for local residents. But these opportunities are lost for a large portion of urban residents—low-literacy, low-skilled adults in particular—unless there are high-quality employment and training services that prepare them for the jobs created by federal investments. The federal government makes investments in the skills of America’s people, primarily through the federally funded public workforce development system. But federal investments that create jobs and federal investments that prepare people for jobs are not always aligned.

    Likewise, at the local level, community development and workforce...

    America’s cities have the potential to be the engines of full national economic recovery and growth. Realizing this potential requires investments not only in places, but also in people. The federal government makes a number of investments in the physical capital of urban communities, including public housing and transportation development. These initiatives have the potential to pay off not just in terms of improved community resources, but also in terms of job opportunities for local residents. But these opportunities are lost for a large portion of urban residents—low-literacy, low-skilled adults in particular—unless there are high-quality employment and training services that prepare them for the jobs created by federal investments. The federal government makes investments in the skills of America’s people, primarily through the federally funded public workforce development system. But federal investments that create jobs and federal investments that prepare people for jobs are not always aligned.

    Likewise, at the local level, community development and workforce development efforts are often not coordinated. Despite growing interest in making this connection, it has been challenging for local community development and workforce development practitioners to collaborate, even as both know that coordination is essential for improving the skills and employability of low-income individuals and for more efficiently using limited public resources.

    Based on interviews with local leaders in five cities (Baltimore, Chicago, New Orleans, Seattle, and Twin Cities) who are working at the intersection of workforce and community development, we offer the following findings and recommendations for ways that federal policy is supporting and could better support efforts to integrate workforce development with community development, particularly in the areas of public housing and transportation development. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Riccio, James A.; Bliss, Steven
    Reference Type: Report, Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2002

    Residents of the nation's public housing developments have long suffered disproportionately from perverse disincentives to work. Under traditional public housing policies, their rents were automatically ratcheted up in lock step with any income increase they realized from earnings, even in a low-wage job. Work often promised them little financial gain. But a series of reforms over the past decade — in welfare and tax policies, as well as in housing policies — have tipped the financial balance more in favor of work, perhaps to a degree that is not fully appreciated by many public housing residents and administrators. Still, some important disincentives remain.

    This policy brief, one in a continuing series that presents emerging insights from the Jobs-Plus demonstration, discusses innovative attempts to bring public housing rent policies more fully into line with reforms in welfare and tax policies designed to “make work pay.” The rationale underlying the Jobs-Plus approach is reinforced by a growing body of research on welfare families showing that policies that allow low-...

    Residents of the nation's public housing developments have long suffered disproportionately from perverse disincentives to work. Under traditional public housing policies, their rents were automatically ratcheted up in lock step with any income increase they realized from earnings, even in a low-wage job. Work often promised them little financial gain. But a series of reforms over the past decade — in welfare and tax policies, as well as in housing policies — have tipped the financial balance more in favor of work, perhaps to a degree that is not fully appreciated by many public housing residents and administrators. Still, some important disincentives remain.

    This policy brief, one in a continuing series that presents emerging insights from the Jobs-Plus demonstration, discusses innovative attempts to bring public housing rent policies more fully into line with reforms in welfare and tax policies designed to “make work pay.” The rationale underlying the Jobs-Plus approach is reinforced by a growing body of research on welfare families showing that policies that allow low-wage workers to keep more of their benefits or receive earnings supplements can help raise employment and earnings, reduce poverty, and increase the well-being of young children. Jobs-Plus is an innovative “place-based” employment initiative for public housing residents that mixes new rent-based work incentives with employment and training services and “neighbor-to-neighbor” social supports for work. The Jobs-Plus rent reforms build on the non-housing reform policies of the 1990s and push further in this direction. They help to ensure that full-time work will leave a family with more net income than part-time work (which has not always been the case), and that a full-time job will raise income above what that same job would yield under the old rent policies.

    Jobs-Plus anticipated some of the key reforms of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act, passed by Congress in 1998. The strategies and experiences of the Jobs-Plus sites can thus offer guidance to other public housing authorities as they attempt to implement provisions of the new law. (author abstract)

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