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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1977

    This statute, also known as the “Farm Bill,” included provisions relating to food stamps, nutrition, rural development and agricultural subsidies. 

    Public Law No. 95-113 (1977).

     

    This statute, also known as the “Farm Bill,” included provisions relating to food stamps, nutrition, rural development and agricultural subsidies. 

    Public Law No. 95-113 (1977).

     

  • Individual Author: Orshansky, Mollie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1976

    The current official measure of poverty used by the Federal government was originally developed by Mollie Orshansky of the Social Security Administration in the early sixties.  Her study, "Children of the Poor", first appeared in the July 1963 Social Security Bulletin, describing a methodology for developing income criteria of need by family size, for families with children.  In January 1965 the Social Security Bulletin contained another article by her entitled "Counting the Poor", which updated and extended the criteria to all types of households, she used as before, a concept of poverty based on budgets centering around cost of a diet which can sustain and adequate nutritional level at a minimal cost using a sliding scale of income requirements for different family sizes and compositions.  An additional refinement was the specification of a lower income level as the threshold for farm families.  This refinement reflected the assumption that farm families customarily obtain housing and food as part of the farm business operation, rather than by direct expenditure. (publisher...

    The current official measure of poverty used by the Federal government was originally developed by Mollie Orshansky of the Social Security Administration in the early sixties.  Her study, "Children of the Poor", first appeared in the July 1963 Social Security Bulletin, describing a methodology for developing income criteria of need by family size, for families with children.  In January 1965 the Social Security Bulletin contained another article by her entitled "Counting the Poor", which updated and extended the criteria to all types of households, she used as before, a concept of poverty based on budgets centering around cost of a diet which can sustain and adequate nutritional level at a minimal cost using a sliding scale of income requirements for different family sizes and compositions.  An additional refinement was the specification of a lower income level as the threshold for farm families.  This refinement reflected the assumption that farm families customarily obtain housing and food as part of the farm business operation, rather than by direct expenditure. (publisher abstract)

    This  Technical Paper collects a number of important articles and papers by Mollie Orshansky and others about the development and early history of the poverty thresholds, including: 

    Mollie Orshansky, "Children of the Poor", Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 7, July 1963, pp. 3-13.

    Mollie Orshansky, "Counting the Poor:  Another Look at the Poverty Profile", Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 1, January 1965, pp. 3-29 — reprinted in Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 10, October 1988, pp. 25-51.

    Mollie Orshansky, "Who's Who Among the Poor:  A Demographic View of Poverty", Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 7, July 1965, pp. 3-32.

    Mollie Orshansky, "How poverty is measured", Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 92, No. 2, February 1969, pp. 37-41.

  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1976

    This statute authorized the provision of federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. It also helped form the basis for the Indian Health Service, an agency with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  It was reauthorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. 

    Public Law. No. 94-437 (1976). 

     

    This statute authorized the provision of federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. It also helped form the basis for the Indian Health Service, an agency with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  It was reauthorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. 

    Public Law. No. 94-437 (1976). 

     

  • Individual Author: Mahoney, Bette S.; Khan, Abdul
    Year: 1976

    Poor persons living in the United States in the 1970s are rich in contrast to their counterparts in other times and places. They are not poor if by poor is meant the subsistence levels of living common in some other countries. Nor are most poor like their counterparts in this country fifty or one hundred years ago. This country is concerned about poverty, its causes and correlates. It is willing to relieve the poverty of some of the poor and it wants to measure the effectiveness of its efforts to do so. None of this can be done without some idea of who is to be considered poor and who is not.

    The report deals with measuring the current status of the poor rather than with the causes or solutions to poverty. A family is none the less poor for having arrived at that state of its own accord. Similarly, the fact that an individual could with modest and reasonable effort escape from poverty has nothing to do with whether he is currently poor...

    The study examines (1) regional, climatic, metropolitan, urban, suburban, and rural differences in the poverty measure, (2)...

    Poor persons living in the United States in the 1970s are rich in contrast to their counterparts in other times and places. They are not poor if by poor is meant the subsistence levels of living common in some other countries. Nor are most poor like their counterparts in this country fifty or one hundred years ago. This country is concerned about poverty, its causes and correlates. It is willing to relieve the poverty of some of the poor and it wants to measure the effectiveness of its efforts to do so. None of this can be done without some idea of who is to be considered poor and who is not.

    The report deals with measuring the current status of the poor rather than with the causes or solutions to poverty. A family is none the less poor for having arrived at that state of its own accord. Similarly, the fact that an individual could with modest and reasonable effort escape from poverty has nothing to do with whether he is currently poor...

    The study examines (1) regional, climatic, metropolitan, urban, suburban, and rural differences in the poverty measure, (2) differences due to family size and head of household, and  (3) the availability of state and other subnational data more current than the decennial Census, including cost of living, cost of housing, labor market and job availability, prevailing wage rates, unemployment rates, income distribution, and the eligibility criteria for aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) under state plans approved for Title IV of the Social Security Act. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Sen, Amartya
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1976

    The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should avoid some of the shortcomings of the measures currently in use. An axiomatic approach is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal. The information requirement for the new measure is quite limited, permitting practical use. (author abstract)

    The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should avoid some of the shortcomings of the measures currently in use. An axiomatic approach is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal. The information requirement for the new measure is quite limited, permitting practical use. (author abstract)

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