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  • Individual Author: Neumark, David
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2000

    In recent years, a flurry of reports on downsizing, outsourcing, and flexible staffing have created the impression that stable, long-term jobs are a thing of the past. According to conventional wisdom, workers can no longer count on building a career with a single employer, and job security is a rare prize. While there is no shortage of striking anecdotes to fuel these popular beliefs, reliable evidence is harder to come by. Researchers have yet to determine whether we are witnessing a sustained, economy-wide decline in the stability of American jobs, or merely a momentary rupture confined to a few industries and a few classes of workers.

    On the Job launches a concerted effort to reconcile the conflicting evidence about job stability and security. The book examines the labor force as a whole, not merely the ousted middle managers who have attracted the most publicity. It looks at the situation of women as well as men, young workers as well as old, and workers on part-time, non-standard, or temporary work schedules. The evidence suggests that long-serving managers and...

    In recent years, a flurry of reports on downsizing, outsourcing, and flexible staffing have created the impression that stable, long-term jobs are a thing of the past. According to conventional wisdom, workers can no longer count on building a career with a single employer, and job security is a rare prize. While there is no shortage of striking anecdotes to fuel these popular beliefs, reliable evidence is harder to come by. Researchers have yet to determine whether we are witnessing a sustained, economy-wide decline in the stability of American jobs, or merely a momentary rupture confined to a few industries and a few classes of workers.

    On the Job launches a concerted effort to reconcile the conflicting evidence about job stability and security. The book examines the labor force as a whole, not merely the ousted middle managers who have attracted the most publicity. It looks at the situation of women as well as men, young workers as well as old, and workers on part-time, non-standard, or temporary work schedules. The evidence suggests that long-serving managers and professionals suffered an unaccustomed loss of job security in the 1990s, but there is less evidence of change for younger, newer recruits. The authors bring our knowledge of the labor market up to date, connecting current conditions in the labor market with longer-term trends that have evolved over the past two decades. They find that layoffs in the early 1990s disrupted the implicit contract between employers and staff, but it is too soon to declare a permanent revolution in the employment relationship.

    Having identified the trends, the authors seek to explain them and to examine their possible consequences. If the bonds between employee and employer are weakening, who stands to benefit? Frequent job-switching can be a sign of success for a worker, if each job provides a stepping stone to something better, but research in this book shows that workers gained less from changing jobs in the 1980s and 1990s than in earlier decades. The authors also evaluate the third-party intermediaries, such as temporary help agencies, which profit from the new flexibility in the matching of workers and employers.

    Besides opening up new angles on the evidence, the authors mark out common ground and pin-point those areas where gaps in our knowledge remain and popular belief runs ahead of reliable evidence. On the Job provides an authoritative basis for spotting the trends and interpreting the fall-out as U.S. employers and employees rethink the terms of their relationship. (author abstract) 

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Change in Job Stability and Job Security: A Collective Effort to Untangle, Reconcile, and Interpret the Evidence - David Neumark 

    Part I - Job Stability 

    Chapter 2: Is Job Stability in the United States Falling? Reconciling Trends in the Current Population Survey and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics - David Jaeger and Ann Huff Stevens 

    Chapter 3: Has Job Stability Declined Yet? New Evidence for the 1990s - David Neumark, Daniel Polsky, and Daniel Hansen

    Chapter 4: Trends in Job Instability and Wages for Young Adult Men - Annette Bernhardt, Martina Morris, Mark Handcock, and Marc Scott

    Chapter 5: Job Instability and Insecurity for Males and Females in the 1980s and 1990s - Peter Gottschalk and Robert Moffitt

    Chapter 6: Has Job Stability Vanished in Large Corporations? - Steven Allen, Robert Clark, and Sylvester Schieber

    Part II - Job Security

    Chapter 7: Declining Job Security - Robert Valletta

    Chapter 8: Did Job Security Decline in the 1990s? - Jay Stewart  

    Chapter 9: Job Security Beliefs in the General Social Survey: Evidence on Long-Run Trends and Comparability with Other Surveys - Stefanie Schmidt

    Part III - Understanding Behavioral Changes

    Chapter 10: Long-Run Trends in Part-Time and Temporary Employment: Toward an Understanding - Alec Levenson

    Chapter 11: Alternative and Part-Time Employment Arrangements as a Response to Job Loss - Henry Farber

    Chapter 12: The Implications of Flexible Staffing Arrangements for Job Stability - Susan Houseman and Anne Polivka

    Chapter 13: Examining the Incidence of Downsizing and Its Effect on Establishment Performance - Peter Cappelli 

  • Individual Author: Gibson, Cynthia M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    The Jobs Initiative, an eight-year demonstration, helps low-income residents find jobs that pay family-supporting wages in Denver, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Seattle. "Entrepreneurial intermediaries," ranging from a private foundation to a city agency, manage six sites that take a dramatically different, long-term approach emphasizing comprehensive strategies that fuel community-based work force development. They have a dual customer focus, meeting needs of supply (workers) and demand (employer) sides; identify and secure entry-level jobs offering low-income people livable wages, benefits, and opportunities for wage and career advancement; build on job-seekers' strengths and respect their talent, dignity, and self reliance, while providing support services; increase dialogue, communication, and understanding among stakeholders; provide community-based organizations with sustained support and technical assistance; stress outcomes-based management; and suggest and provoke broader systemic change leading to more effective jobs and work force development...

    The Jobs Initiative, an eight-year demonstration, helps low-income residents find jobs that pay family-supporting wages in Denver, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Seattle. "Entrepreneurial intermediaries," ranging from a private foundation to a city agency, manage six sites that take a dramatically different, long-term approach emphasizing comprehensive strategies that fuel community-based work force development. They have a dual customer focus, meeting needs of supply (workers) and demand (employer) sides; identify and secure entry-level jobs offering low-income people livable wages, benefits, and opportunities for wage and career advancement; build on job-seekers' strengths and respect their talent, dignity, and self reliance, while providing support services; increase dialogue, communication, and understanding among stakeholders; provide community-based organizations with sustained support and technical assistance; stress outcomes-based management; and suggest and provoke broader systemic change leading to more effective jobs and work force development programs and policies. Site results indicate that individuals placed in jobs had experienced significant hourly wage and earnings increases; more than twice as many had medical benefits; and more than half had been employed 12 months. Requirements for meeting workplace demands are employer engagement; employee retention and advancement; collaboration; and building organizational capacity. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fein, David J.; Lee, Wang S.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    Any effects of welfare reform on children’s involvement with child protective services (CPS) can be assumed to indicate that policies are having very serious effects on children’s well-being. Abuse and neglect are linked to a host of other negative outcomes, and impacts on abuse and neglect measured in CPS data may understate impacts on the much larger universe of maltreatment that CPS agencies do not detect. Several non-experimental analyses of welfare reforms prior to the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) have utilized CPS data, but there have been no more rigorous experimental analyses of more recent policies.

    In this study, we use CPS data and an experimental design to measure impacts on child abuse and neglect of Delaware’s welfare program, A Better Chance (ABC). ABC contains relatively strong versions of policies that have come to be emblematic of the national welfare reform landscape, including strong work requirements, time limits, and parenting and other personal responsibility requirements. Delaware provides an...

    Any effects of welfare reform on children’s involvement with child protective services (CPS) can be assumed to indicate that policies are having very serious effects on children’s well-being. Abuse and neglect are linked to a host of other negative outcomes, and impacts on abuse and neglect measured in CPS data may understate impacts on the much larger universe of maltreatment that CPS agencies do not detect. Several non-experimental analyses of welfare reforms prior to the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) have utilized CPS data, but there have been no more rigorous experimental analyses of more recent policies.

    In this study, we use CPS data and an experimental design to measure impacts on child abuse and neglect of Delaware’s welfare program, A Better Chance (ABC). ABC contains relatively strong versions of policies that have come to be emblematic of the national welfare reform landscape, including strong work requirements, time limits, and parenting and other personal responsibility requirements. Delaware provides an important opportunity to assess the effects of welfare benefit reductions, given that the state’s sanction rates have been among the highest reported. (author summary)

  • Individual Author: Wolfe, Barbara L.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 changed the U.S. welfare system dramatically. Its primary goal was to reduce dependency by moving most of those receiving cash welfare into the work force. One tool to accomplish this objective was a change in the incentives facing actual and potential recipients. States were granted flexibility in how to accomplish this objective. This paper evaluates the program in four states in terms of efficiency and equity. It looks briefly at resulting labor force participation and incomes of those most directly affected by welfare reforms. The analysis highlights the difficulty of simultaneously providing incentives to work and incentives to increase individuals' labor market productivity while maintaining a minimal safety net and avoiding high marginal rates of taxation. None of the states studied is able to avoid a "poverty trap" in its program. The need to coordinate the benefit and withdrawal schedule of programs designed to help this population flows from the analysis. (author abstract)

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 changed the U.S. welfare system dramatically. Its primary goal was to reduce dependency by moving most of those receiving cash welfare into the work force. One tool to accomplish this objective was a change in the incentives facing actual and potential recipients. States were granted flexibility in how to accomplish this objective. This paper evaluates the program in four states in terms of efficiency and equity. It looks briefly at resulting labor force participation and incomes of those most directly affected by welfare reforms. The analysis highlights the difficulty of simultaneously providing incentives to work and incentives to increase individuals' labor market productivity while maintaining a minimal safety net and avoiding high marginal rates of taxation. None of the states studied is able to avoid a "poverty trap" in its program. The need to coordinate the benefit and withdrawal schedule of programs designed to help this population flows from the analysis. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    After 16 previous editions, the Green Book has become a standard reference source on American social policy. It is widely used by Members of Congress and their staffs, analysts in congressional and administrative agencies, members of the media, scholars, and citizens interested in the Nation's social policy.

    This edition of the Green Book follows the basic pattern of previous editions. The volume is divided into two parts, Program Descriptions and Appendixes. In the Program Description part, separate sections are devoted to the major programs under jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means: Social Security; Medicare; Supplemental Security Income; Unemployment Compensation; Earned Entitlements for Railroad Employees; Trade Adjustment Assistance; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (Aid to Families with Dependent Children in previous editions); Child Support Enforcement; Child Care; Title XX Social Services Block Grant; Child Protection; Foster Care and Adoption Assistance; Social Welfare Programs in the Territories; Tax Provisions Related to Retirement, Health,...

    After 16 previous editions, the Green Book has become a standard reference source on American social policy. It is widely used by Members of Congress and their staffs, analysts in congressional and administrative agencies, members of the media, scholars, and citizens interested in the Nation's social policy.

    This edition of the Green Book follows the basic pattern of previous editions. The volume is divided into two parts, Program Descriptions and Appendixes. In the Program Description part, separate sections are devoted to the major programs under jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means: Social Security; Medicare; Supplemental Security Income; Unemployment Compensation; Earned Entitlements for Railroad Employees; Trade Adjustment Assistance; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (Aid to Families with Dependent Children in previous editions); Child Support Enforcement; Child Care; Title XX Social Services Block Grant; Child Protection; Foster Care and Adoption Assistance; Social Welfare Programs in the Territories; Tax Provisions Related to Retirement, Health, Poverty, Employment, Disability, and Other Social Issues; and the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. A final section summarizes major social programs that are not under jurisdiction of the Committee (including food stamps, Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program, Federal housing assistance, School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, the Child and Adult Care Food Program, the Workforce Investment Act, Head Start, the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program, veterans benefits and services, and workers' compensation).

    The Appendixes include information directly related to the programs under Committee jurisdiction, including: health care of the elderly; long-term care health care expenditures; Medicare reimbursements for hospitals and physicians; the Medicare+Choice Program; data on employment earnings, and unemployment; data on families and poverty; Federal budget tables; benefits available to noncitizens and spending on income-tested benefits in recent decades; a literature review of studies of the effects of welfare reform; and information about nonmarital births and Federal strategies to reduce nonmarital pregnancies.

    This year's Green Book contains several changes from the 1998 edition. In addition to updating data and legislative changes in all the sections and appendixes, a number of the sections have been substantially rewritten. The new section on the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program that was created by the 1996 welfare reform law is almost completely new. In addition, the sections on Social Security and child protection have been extensively reorganized and revised. Finally, three new appendixes have been added. One new appendix provides detailed information about the Medicare+Choice Program. Another new appendix, on which we received very helpful comments from many scholars and policy experts, reviews the large and growing research on welfare reform. The new appendix on nonmarital births, included in the Green Book at the suggestion of Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, provides a useful overview of historical trends in nonmarital births and recent actions taken by Congress to combat these trends. (author introduction)

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