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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Maloy, Kathleen A.; Pavetti, LaDonna A.; Darnell, Julie; Shin, Peter
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the individual entitlement to welfare benefits and gave states new flexibility to emphasize work instead welfare. PRWORA also severed the traditional eligibility link between Medicaid and welfare. This research examined the emergence of diversion programs as a particular aspect of state welfare reform efforts and the potential for diversion programs to reduce access to Medicaid. In this second of two reports, we present the results of case studies in five states.

    Major findings from this research are:

    • Formal strategies to divert families from welfare are an increasingly common aspect of states' efforts to shift to a work-oriented assistance system. These efforts to emphasize work instead of welfare on the “front end” can also result in informal diversion.
    • Design and implementation of diversion programs reflect state and/or local goals and philosophies; these five states represent a range of diversion strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding key...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the individual entitlement to welfare benefits and gave states new flexibility to emphasize work instead welfare. PRWORA also severed the traditional eligibility link between Medicaid and welfare. This research examined the emergence of diversion programs as a particular aspect of state welfare reform efforts and the potential for diversion programs to reduce access to Medicaid. In this second of two reports, we present the results of case studies in five states.

    Major findings from this research are:

    • Formal strategies to divert families from welfare are an increasingly common aspect of states' efforts to shift to a work-oriented assistance system. These efforts to emphasize work instead of welfare on the “front end” can also result in informal diversion.
    • Design and implementation of diversion programs reflect state and/or local goals and philosophies; these five states represent a range of diversion strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding key design and implementation choices in each state and, in some cases, each local office within a state.
    • Of the three types of formal diversion, mandatory applicant job search represents the fastest growing program with the greatest potential to divert large numbers of families.
    • Diversion, both formal and informal, has substantial potential to reduce initial access to Medicaid, particularly as families increasingly bypass welfare or go to work quickly thereby becoming ineligible for Medicaid under most states’ current eligibility criteria.
    • State officials can ameliorate this effect on Medicaid by improving implementation efforts and taking advantage of policy options under Section 1931 to focus attention on Medicaid as a stand-alone health insurance program for low-income families.
    • The compelling Medicaid and welfare reform policy challenge posed by diversion is how to use Medicaid effectively to support the welfare reform goal to promote work. Because PRWORA fundamentally changed the nature of the welfare system, states can and should consider whether it is a desirable consequence of their Medicaid and welfare policies that access to Medicaid for diverted families is limited or unavailable.
    • Little information is available on the number and circumstances of families who have been diverted from the welfare rolls. Without such information, reports on the success or failure of state welfare reform efforts will be incomplete.

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Marks, Ellen L.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    In 1998, the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) initiated a project on rural welfare to work strategies. Competitive grants were awarded to ten states to: increase knowledge about strategies currently used in rural areas, develop new strategies and approaches to be tested, and assist in designing appropriate research questions and methods to evaluate alternative strategies for welfare reform in low-income rural communities.

    Matters that the states are addressing include: 1) Ways that the rural TANF population differs from the nonrural TANF population in terms of employability, access to affordable and quality child care, special circumstances, and service needs. 2) The best strategies, policies, and programs to overcome challenges that affect TANF participants and children in rural, low-income families. 3) The most effective approaches to implement and test programs that will produce useful information for rural welfare to work strategies. (author abstract)

    In 1998, the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) initiated a project on rural welfare to work strategies. Competitive grants were awarded to ten states to: increase knowledge about strategies currently used in rural areas, develop new strategies and approaches to be tested, and assist in designing appropriate research questions and methods to evaluate alternative strategies for welfare reform in low-income rural communities.

    Matters that the states are addressing include: 1) Ways that the rural TANF population differs from the nonrural TANF population in terms of employability, access to affordable and quality child care, special circumstances, and service needs. 2) The best strategies, policies, and programs to overcome challenges that affect TANF participants and children in rural, low-income families. 3) The most effective approaches to implement and test programs that will produce useful information for rural welfare to work strategies. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rog, Debra J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    The Homeless Families Program (HFP), a joint demonstration effort of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJ) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), was initiated in 1990 as the first large-scale response to the problem of family homelessness. The HFP was implemented in nine cities across the nation with two complementary goals:

    1. To create systems change, by developing or restructuring the systems of health and support services and housing for families; and
    2. To develop and test a model of services-enriched housing for homeless families who have multiple problems.

    The ultimate goals of the Program were to improve families’ residential stability, foster greater use of services, and increase steps toward self-sufficiency.

    (Author abstract)

    The Homeless Families Program (HFP), a joint demonstration effort of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJ) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), was initiated in 1990 as the first large-scale response to the problem of family homelessness. The HFP was implemented in nine cities across the nation with two complementary goals:

    1. To create systems change, by developing or restructuring the systems of health and support services and housing for families; and
    2. To develop and test a model of services-enriched housing for homeless families who have multiple problems.

    The ultimate goals of the Program were to improve families’ residential stability, foster greater use of services, and increase steps toward self-sufficiency.

    (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: McKey, Ruth Hubbell; Tarullo, Louisa B.; Doan, Henry M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) is a central part of Head Start’s Program Performance Measures Initiative to provide outcome-based information about the Head Start program to the Head Start Bureau and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, local Head Start grantees, Congress and the public. Head Start is a comprehensive early childhood development program for low-income children and their families. Initiated in 1965, Head Start provides early childhood education, health, nutrition, mental health, parent involvement and social services primarily to three- and four-year-old children nationwide, although a new program, Early Head Start, serves children from birth to age three.

    As the nation's premier early childhood education program, Head Start is leading the way in developing and reporting on its accountability for services to approximately 800,000 children and their families each year. From initial planning in 1995 to the publication of the Head Start Performance Measures Second Progress Report, Head Start has made dramatic progress toward the...

    The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) is a central part of Head Start’s Program Performance Measures Initiative to provide outcome-based information about the Head Start program to the Head Start Bureau and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, local Head Start grantees, Congress and the public. Head Start is a comprehensive early childhood development program for low-income children and their families. Initiated in 1965, Head Start provides early childhood education, health, nutrition, mental health, parent involvement and social services primarily to three- and four-year-old children nationwide, although a new program, Early Head Start, serves children from birth to age three.

    As the nation's premier early childhood education program, Head Start is leading the way in developing and reporting on its accountability for services to approximately 800,000 children and their families each year. From initial planning in 1995 to the publication of the Head Start Performance Measures Second Progress Report, Head Start has made dramatic progress toward the development of an outcome-oriented accountability system. This approach combines the best attributes of scientific research with program-level reporting and monitoring and is based on a consensus-driven set of criteria for program accountability.

    The Head Start Program Performance Measures Initiative is a response to a specific legislative mandate, strategic planning for Head Start, and broader public emphasis on accountability and the general movement toward results-oriented evaluation. Specifically, the Program Performance Measures were developed in accordance with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion, the mandate of Section 641A (b) of the Head Start Act (42 USC 9831 et seq.) as reauthorized in 1994 and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)(Public Law 103-62).
     
    The Act defines Program Performance Measures as "methods and procedures for measuring, annually and over longer periods, the quality and effectiveness of programs operated by Head Start agencies" that will be used to identify strengths and weaknesses in the Head Start program both nationally and by region - and pinpoint areas requiring additional training and technical assistance. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Zill, Nicholas; Resnick, Gary; McKey, Ruth Hubbell
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The national Head Start Bureau has determined that the ultimate goal of the program is, “to enhance the social competence of children from low-income families.” Social competence has been defined by the Bureau as, “a child's everyday effectiveness in dealing with both the present environment and later responsibilities in school and life.” For the five-year-old child coming to the end of the preschool period, a key test of social competence is how well he or she functions and adjusts to the demands of kindergarten and elementary school, what is often called school readiness. One of the primary objectives of the Head Start program supporting the goal of social competence and school readiness is “to enhance children’s healthy growth and development.”

    The instruments used in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) were designed to tap major components of social competence. Children’s cognitive development and early academic skills were measured through a direct child assessment administered to each of the sample children by specially trained assessors....

    The national Head Start Bureau has determined that the ultimate goal of the program is, “to enhance the social competence of children from low-income families.” Social competence has been defined by the Bureau as, “a child's everyday effectiveness in dealing with both the present environment and later responsibilities in school and life.” For the five-year-old child coming to the end of the preschool period, a key test of social competence is how well he or she functions and adjusts to the demands of kindergarten and elementary school, what is often called school readiness. One of the primary objectives of the Head Start program supporting the goal of social competence and school readiness is “to enhance children’s healthy growth and development.”

    The instruments used in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) were designed to tap major components of social competence. Children’s cognitive development and early academic skills were measured through a direct child assessment administered to each of the sample children by specially trained assessors. Children’s developing social skills were assessed by means of standardized scales filled out by teachers and parents and through direct observation of the children’s social play, observations made during multi-day visits to Head Start centers. Children’s approaches to learning and problem behaviors were also captured through standardized teacher and parent reports, as well as through scales completed by the trained assessors after they had conducted their one-on-one testing sessions with the children. (author abstract)

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