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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Long, Sharon K.; Clark, Sandra J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) eliminates federal child care entitlements and consolidates the major sources of federal child care subsidies for low-income children into a single block grant to states. The new block grant provides the potential for substantially greater child care funding depending on the options adopted by states. This analysis examines the funding options states have under PRWORA and the decisions states must make regarding their need for child care assistance. (author abstract)

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) eliminates federal child care entitlements and consolidates the major sources of federal child care subsidies for low-income children into a single block grant to states. The new block grant provides the potential for substantially greater child care funding depending on the options adopted by states. This analysis examines the funding options states have under PRWORA and the decisions states must make regarding their need for child care assistance. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hardy, Janet B. ; Shapiro, Sam ; Astone, Nan M. ; Miller, Therese L. ; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne ; Hilton, Sterling C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Objectives. Data from recent interviews with 1758 inner-city children, born between 1960 to 1965 and followed with their mothers in the Pathways to Adulthood Study to age 27 to 33 years, were used to address two related questions. 1) Is maternal age, across the reproductive age range, a determinant of child's adult outcome? and 2) Do covariates of maternal age at delivery reduce or eliminate the effect of maternal age on child's adult outcome?

    Methods. An intergenerational life course model of development identified significant maternal and child characteristics at birth associated with the child's self-sufficient outcomes in adulthood: education (more than or equal to a high school diploma); financial independence of public support; and delay of first birth until age 20 or older. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to identify independent relationships between dependent and independent variables and to adjust the outcomes to compensate for the effect of possible confounding of maternal age at delivery by maternal education,...

    Objectives. Data from recent interviews with 1758 inner-city children, born between 1960 to 1965 and followed with their mothers in the Pathways to Adulthood Study to age 27 to 33 years, were used to address two related questions. 1) Is maternal age, across the reproductive age range, a determinant of child's adult outcome? and 2) Do covariates of maternal age at delivery reduce or eliminate the effect of maternal age on child's adult outcome?

    Methods. An intergenerational life course model of development identified significant maternal and child characteristics at birth associated with the child's self-sufficient outcomes in adulthood: education (more than or equal to a high school diploma); financial independence of public support; and delay of first birth until age 20 or older. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to identify independent relationships between dependent and independent variables and to adjust the outcomes to compensate for the effect of possible confounding of maternal age at delivery by maternal education, parity, poverty status, and the child's race and gender.

    Results.  Each covariate was independently associated with maternal age at delivery. Adjustment for their effects reduced, but did not eliminate, the association between maternal age at birth and the child's outcome at age 27 to 33 years. As a group, children of the oldest mothers (≥25 years of age) had the most favorable outcomes, and those of teenage mothers (<20 years of age) had the least favorable outcomes; 22% of daughters and 6% of sons of the oldest mothers versus 38% and 18%, respectively, of the youngest mothers became teenage parents.

    Conclusion.  The mother's age at delivery is an independent determinant of the child's adult status. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Sandefur, Gary D. ; Wells, Thomas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    This paper examines the effects of family structure on educational attainment after controlling for common family influences, observed and unobserved, using data from siblings. The use of sibling data permits us to examine whether the apparent effects of family structure are due to unmeasured characteristics of families that are common to siblings. The data come from pairs of siblings in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979–1992. The results suggest that taking into account the unmeasured family characteristics yields estimates of the effects of family structure on educational attainment that are smaller, but still statistically significant, than estimates based on analyses that do not take unmeasured family influences into account. (author abstract)

    This paper examines the effects of family structure on educational attainment after controlling for common family influences, observed and unobserved, using data from siblings. The use of sibling data permits us to examine whether the apparent effects of family structure are due to unmeasured characteristics of families that are common to siblings. The data come from pairs of siblings in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979–1992. The results suggest that taking into account the unmeasured family characteristics yields estimates of the effects of family structure on educational attainment that are smaller, but still statistically significant, than estimates based on analyses that do not take unmeasured family influences into account. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Garner, Thesia; Paulin, Geoffrey; Shipp, Stephanie; Short, Kathleen; Nelson, Charles
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    Social and economic conditions have changed in the U.S. in fundamental ways in the last thirty years—there are more working mothers, families are smaller, there are wider variations in commodity types (e.g., healthcare coverage), and expectations about what it takes to meet one’s needs are higher. In addition, geographic variations in housing and the increasing importance of government programs have contributed to families’ appraisals of the value of their disposable incomes. Fisher refers to such changes as changes in social processes. He notes that with technological advances and increases in levels of living, new consumption items are introduced. With the introduction of new items and more widespread acceptance and use of these items, the belief about what are necessities changes. Changes in the way our society is organized can also contribute to changes in our expectations (e.g., greater dependence on private rather than public transportation), as can changes in social policy (e.g., changes in the minimum quality acceptable for public housing). With these and related changes...

    Social and economic conditions have changed in the U.S. in fundamental ways in the last thirty years—there are more working mothers, families are smaller, there are wider variations in commodity types (e.g., healthcare coverage), and expectations about what it takes to meet one’s needs are higher. In addition, geographic variations in housing and the increasing importance of government programs have contributed to families’ appraisals of the value of their disposable incomes. Fisher refers to such changes as changes in social processes. He notes that with technological advances and increases in levels of living, new consumption items are introduced. With the introduction of new items and more widespread acceptance and use of these items, the belief about what are necessities changes. Changes in the way our society is organized can also contribute to changes in our expectations (e.g., greater dependence on private rather than public transportation), as can changes in social policy (e.g., changes in the minimum quality acceptable for public housing). With these and related changes have come questions concerning whether the measures and data which are used to produce various economic statistics are still meaningful. Among the measures questioned is the one for poverty.

    The most recent comprehensive examination of poverty measurement in the United States was conducted by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance. This Panel of eminent scholars published their findings in a report titled Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Included in the report are recommendations for a new poverty measurement, along with examples of how to implement the recommendations. The Panel recommended that poverty measurement, including both thresholds and resources, should better reflect social and economic changes. The thresholds should be based on expenditures for food, clothing, shelter, utilities, and “a little bit more.” The underlying assumption concerning these thresholds is that a family’s basic needs can be met. Resources should be defined to reflect the sum of money income (net of taxes) and near money benefits from selected government transfer programs, less some work related and medical expenses, that the family has available to meet their needs…

    The purpose of this paper is to report on operationalizing the Panel’s basic proposed procedure in a test environment. We identify our poverty measure as “experimental,” in contrast to the current poverty measure and the one published by the Panel. In this study, we do not attempt to justify the Panel’s recommended procedure nor do we attempt to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages; instead we take the recommendations as they are presented. This work represents a joint project between the Bureau of the Census (Census) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the two U.S. government statistical agencies which are most likely to be involved in producing the new poverty measure if the recommendations are followed. Estimation of the thresholds work is being conducted primarily by the BLS team and estimation of resources by the Census team. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Miller, Cynthia; Knox, Virginia; Auspos, Patricia; Hunter-Manns, Jo Anna; Orenstein, Alan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    This report is the second in an evaluation of MFIP that the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) is conducting under contract with Minnesota’s Department of Human Services (DHS) and with support from the Ford Foundation, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the McKnight Foundation, and the Northwest Area Foundation. The report examines the implementation of MFIP and its effects on welfare recipients’ employment, earnings, welfare receipt, and total income during their first 18 months in the study. (author abstract)

    This report is the second in an evaluation of MFIP that the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) is conducting under contract with Minnesota’s Department of Human Services (DHS) and with support from the Ford Foundation, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the McKnight Foundation, and the Northwest Area Foundation. The report examines the implementation of MFIP and its effects on welfare recipients’ employment, earnings, welfare receipt, and total income during their first 18 months in the study. (author abstract)

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