Skip to main content
Back to Top

SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Brown, Brett V.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Teenagers make many of the important decisions leading to or away from initial welfare dependence: acceptance or rejection of nonmarital pregnancy, childbearing, and drug use; and level of labor force participation. Research literature, in fact, has established a relationship between youth values and attitudes and these behaviors. Consequently, given the assumptions and expectations of the framers of welfare reform, teenage values and attitudes may be particularly important factors affecting its chances for ultimate success.

    This brief presents trends in youth attitudes in three areas relevant to welfare reform: family formation and parenting, work and preparation for work, and community service.

    Annual data are presented for 1985 through 1999, covering the decade preceding welfare reform and the first three years after its passage. A complex set of cultural trends emerge. Whether these trends favor or work against welfare reform's success, they show modest evidence at best of change that might reflect the effects of PRWORA. (author introduction)

    Teenagers make many of the important decisions leading to or away from initial welfare dependence: acceptance or rejection of nonmarital pregnancy, childbearing, and drug use; and level of labor force participation. Research literature, in fact, has established a relationship between youth values and attitudes and these behaviors. Consequently, given the assumptions and expectations of the framers of welfare reform, teenage values and attitudes may be particularly important factors affecting its chances for ultimate success.

    This brief presents trends in youth attitudes in three areas relevant to welfare reform: family formation and parenting, work and preparation for work, and community service.

    Annual data are presented for 1985 through 1999, covering the decade preceding welfare reform and the first three years after its passage. A complex set of cultural trends emerge. Whether these trends favor or work against welfare reform's success, they show modest evidence at best of change that might reflect the effects of PRWORA. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Loprest, Pamela J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Since passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (popularly known as welfare reform) in 1996, welfare caseloads have declined almost 50 percent nationally. Some claim this signals that welfare reform is a success; others argue that more information is necessary on what has happened to the families leaving welfare. In response, many studies have been conducted that examine outcomes for families that left welfare. Early results from these studies show that a majority of leavers are working, often full-time and at about the same wage rates as other, similar groups in the labor market.

    There is much concern, however, that the outcomes for families that left welfare soon after reform do not necessarily reflect the outcomes of future groups of leavers, who may fare progressively worse in the labor market. This concern stems in part from the idea that the most "job-ready" people left welfare first, leaving behind recipients who have more personal barriers to work. The implications of this hypothesis, if it is true, for groups of leavers is not...

    Since passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (popularly known as welfare reform) in 1996, welfare caseloads have declined almost 50 percent nationally. Some claim this signals that welfare reform is a success; others argue that more information is necessary on what has happened to the families leaving welfare. In response, many studies have been conducted that examine outcomes for families that left welfare. Early results from these studies show that a majority of leavers are working, often full-time and at about the same wage rates as other, similar groups in the labor market.

    There is much concern, however, that the outcomes for families that left welfare soon after reform do not necessarily reflect the outcomes of future groups of leavers, who may fare progressively worse in the labor market. This concern stems in part from the idea that the most "job-ready" people left welfare first, leaving behind recipients who have more personal barriers to work. The implications of this hypothesis, if it is true, for groups of leavers is not clear. On the one hand, more recipients with barriers to work could mean that fewer recipients are leaving but that there are no differences in the level of job readiness of those who leave. On the other hand, more recent leaver groups could be more disadvantaged because time limits and sanctions for failing to meet work requirements can compel exit, regardless of barriers to work.

    This brief examines whether a more recent group of leavers—those who left welfare between 1997 and 1999—appears more disadvantaged or less job-ready than an early group of leavers—those who left between 1995 and 1997—by comparing barriers to work and economic outcomes between the two groups. The study uses data from the National Survey of America's Families—a large, nationally representative survey—conducted in 1997 and 1999. The term "leaver" includes former recipients who received cash benefits at some point between 1995 and 1997 (for the early group) or 1997 and 1999 (for the later group) and who were no longer receiving benefits at the time of the interview in 1997 or 1999, respectively. As time limits were being reached in some states during the 1997 to 1999 period and full family sanction use also increased during this period, it is possible that this more recent group of leavers is composed of fewer job-ready former recipients, on average.

    Despite these concerns, this study finds relatively little evidence that recent leavers are more disadvantaged than earlier leavers. The characteristics of the two groups are similar, except that a larger percentage of the recent group are in poor health.

    Labor market outcomes (including employment, wages, and earnings) and receipt of government benefits are also similar across both groups of leavers. In addition, there is a significant decline in the percentage of families with income below the poverty level in the more recent group. However, despite this evidence that the economic outcomes of recent leavers are the same or even better than those of earlier leavers, a greater percentage of recent leavers report experiencing economic hardships such as trouble paying rent. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kaye, Laura K.; Nightingale, Demetra S.; Sandfort, Jodi; Fender, Lynne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    This report begins with a short profile of Massachusetts' economy and population. A brief overview of the income and social services safety net is also presented, as well as caseload statistics. The remainder of the brief is divided into three main sections, each of which provides detail on specific programs and services, administrative structure, general service delivery, and important policies affecting each of the key programs and their clients. Massachusetts' TAFDC program is described first, including the state's work-related component for TAFDC recipients, and the overall workforce development system. Then the state's system for providing child care for both TANF and low-income families is addressed. The third program area described is the child welfare system, with particular attention paid to the interaction between child welfare and welfare reform. Finally, the report concludes with a summary of the key changes in Massachusetts' programs and delivery systems and points to future challenges for the state.

    Information presented in this report comes primarily from...

    This report begins with a short profile of Massachusetts' economy and population. A brief overview of the income and social services safety net is also presented, as well as caseload statistics. The remainder of the brief is divided into three main sections, each of which provides detail on specific programs and services, administrative structure, general service delivery, and important policies affecting each of the key programs and their clients. Massachusetts' TAFDC program is described first, including the state's work-related component for TAFDC recipients, and the overall workforce development system. Then the state's system for providing child care for both TANF and low-income families is addressed. The third program area described is the child welfare system, with particular attention paid to the interaction between child welfare and welfare reform. Finally, the report concludes with a summary of the key changes in Massachusetts' programs and delivery systems and points to future challenges for the state.

    Information presented in this report comes primarily from more than 100 in-person interviews conducted with officials, administrators, and staff during site visits to Massachusetts. Key state-level officials responsible for TAFDC, child care, and child welfare were interviewed to obtain an overview of the system statewide and to learn about new policy directions and initiatives. At the regional and local level, managers and front-line workers were interviewed to better understand the types of services low-income families receive and how they get those services. Interviews were conducted locally in the Boston area at public and private welfare, social services, employment, job training, child welfare, and child care agencies, including organizations implementing programs with federal Welfare-to-Work (WtW) grants. In addition, the child care team conducted focus groups with parents, providers, and TANF case workers, and the child welfare team held focus groups with social workers and interviewed other local child welfare officials by telephone. Representatives of advocacy organizations working on issues of importance to low-income families were also interviewed. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Bartik, Timothy J.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2001

    Even as the United States enjoys a booming economy and historically low levels of unemployment, millions of Americans remain out of work or underemployed, and joblessness continues to plague many urban communities, racial minorities, and people with little education. In Jobs for the Poor, Timothy Bartik calls for a dramatic shift in the way the United States confronts this problem. Today, most efforts to address this problem focus on ways to make workers more employable, such as job training and welfare reform. But Bartik argues that the United States should put more emphasis on ways to increase the interest of employers in creating jobs for the poor—or the labor demand side of the labor market.

    Bartik's bases his case for labor demand policies on a comprehensive review of the low-wage labor market. He examines the effectiveness of government interventions in the labor market, such as Welfare Reform, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Welfare-to-Work programs, and asks if having a job makes a person more employable. Bartik finds that public service employment and...

    Even as the United States enjoys a booming economy and historically low levels of unemployment, millions of Americans remain out of work or underemployed, and joblessness continues to plague many urban communities, racial minorities, and people with little education. In Jobs for the Poor, Timothy Bartik calls for a dramatic shift in the way the United States confronts this problem. Today, most efforts to address this problem focus on ways to make workers more employable, such as job training and welfare reform. But Bartik argues that the United States should put more emphasis on ways to increase the interest of employers in creating jobs for the poor—or the labor demand side of the labor market.

    Bartik's bases his case for labor demand policies on a comprehensive review of the low-wage labor market. He examines the effectiveness of government interventions in the labor market, such as Welfare Reform, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Welfare-to-Work programs, and asks if having a job makes a person more employable. Bartik finds that public service employment and targeted employer wage subsidies can increase employment among the poor. In turn, job experience significantly increases the poor's long-run earnings by enhancing their skills and reputation with employers. And labor demand policies can avoid causing inflation or displacing other workers by targeting high-unemployment labor markets and persons who would otherwise be unemployed.

    Bartik concludes by proposing a large-scale labor demand program. One component of the program would give a tax credit to employers in areas of high unemployment. To provide disadvantaged workers with more targeted help, Bartik also recommends offering short-term subsidies to employers—particularly small businesses and nonprofit organizations—that hire people who otherwise would be unlikely to find jobs. With experience from subsidized jobs, the new workers should find it easier to obtain future year-round employment.

    Although these efforts would not catapult poor families into the middle class overnight, Bartik offers a powerful argument that having a full-time worker in every household would help improve the lives of millions. Jobs for the Poor makes a compelling case that full employment can be achieved if the country has the political will and adopts policies that address both sides of the labor market. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Blau, David M.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2001

    The child care system in the United States is widely criticized, yet the underlying structural problems are difficult to pin down. In The Child Care Problem, David M. Blau sets aside the often emotional terms of the debate and applies a rigorous economic analysis to the state of the child care system in this country, arriving at a surprising diagnosis of the root of the problem.

    Blau approaches child care as a service that is bought and sold in markets, addressing such questions as: What kinds of child care are available? Is good care really hard to find? How do costs affect the services families choose? Why are child care workers underpaid relative to other professions? He finds that the child care market functions much better than is commonly believed. The supply of providers has kept pace with the number of mothers entering the workforce, and costs remain relatively modest. Yet most families place a relatively low value on high-quality child care, and are unwilling to pay more for better care. Blau sees this lack of demand—rather than the market's inadequate supply—as...

    The child care system in the United States is widely criticized, yet the underlying structural problems are difficult to pin down. In The Child Care Problem, David M. Blau sets aside the often emotional terms of the debate and applies a rigorous economic analysis to the state of the child care system in this country, arriving at a surprising diagnosis of the root of the problem.

    Blau approaches child care as a service that is bought and sold in markets, addressing such questions as: What kinds of child care are available? Is good care really hard to find? How do costs affect the services families choose? Why are child care workers underpaid relative to other professions? He finds that the child care market functions much better than is commonly believed. The supply of providers has kept pace with the number of mothers entering the workforce, and costs remain relatively modest. Yet most families place a relatively low value on high-quality child care, and are unwilling to pay more for better care. Blau sees this lack of demand—rather than the market's inadequate supply—as the cause of the nation's child care dilemma. The Child Care Problem also faults government welfare policies—which treat child care subsidies mainly as a means to increase employment of mothers, but set no standards regarding the quality of child care their subsidies can purchase.

    Blau trains an economic lens on research by child psychologists, evaluating the evidence that the day care environment has a genuine impact on early development. The failure of families and government to place a priority on improving such critical conditions for their children provides a compelling reason to advocate change. The Child Care Problem concludes with a balanced proposal for reform. Blau outlines a systematic effort to provide families of all incomes with the information they need to make more prudent decisions. And he suggests specific revisions to welfare policy, including both an allowance to defray the expenses of families with children, and a child care voucher that is worth more when used for higher quality care.

    The Child Care Problem provides a straightforward evaluation of the many contradictory claims about the problems with child care, and lays out a reasoned blueprint for reform which will help guide both social scientists and non-academics alike toward improving the quality of child care in this country. (author abstract)

Sort by

Topical Area(s)

Popular Searches

Source

Year

Year ranges from 1935 to 2018

Reference Type

Research Methodology

Geographic Focus

Target Populations