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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Saylor, William G.; Gaes, Gerald G.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Post Release Employment Project (PREP) was designed to evaluate the effect of industrial work experience (UNICOR), and vocational, and apprenticeship training programs on prison adjustment and post-release outcomes. Post release outcomes were defined as employment and recidivism. Short term recidivism -- up to 1 year -- was based on either a revocation of a term of supervision or re-arrest. Long term recidivism -- up to 12 years -- was defined as a revocation or re-incarceration following a conviction for a new offense. Previous findings (Saylor and Gaes, 1997) demonstrated that these kinds of programs inhibit prison misconduct, increase the likelihood of post release employment, and reduce post prison re-arrest and recommitment rates.

    The purpose of this brief research note is to report further analyses of the PREP data which focuses on the differential effects of training programs on racial and ethnic groups. There has been some evidence that minorities may benefit more from industrial training than nonminorities. (author introduction)

    The Post Release Employment Project (PREP) was designed to evaluate the effect of industrial work experience (UNICOR), and vocational, and apprenticeship training programs on prison adjustment and post-release outcomes. Post release outcomes were defined as employment and recidivism. Short term recidivism -- up to 1 year -- was based on either a revocation of a term of supervision or re-arrest. Long term recidivism -- up to 12 years -- was defined as a revocation or re-incarceration following a conviction for a new offense. Previous findings (Saylor and Gaes, 1997) demonstrated that these kinds of programs inhibit prison misconduct, increase the likelihood of post release employment, and reduce post prison re-arrest and recommitment rates.

    The purpose of this brief research note is to report further analyses of the PREP data which focuses on the differential effects of training programs on racial and ethnic groups. There has been some evidence that minorities may benefit more from industrial training than nonminorities. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Schumacher, Rachel; Greenberg, Mark
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    In light of significant welfare caseload declines since the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, many questions have been raised about the circumstances of families and children no longer receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance. In response to these questions, a number of states have initiated what have come to be known as "leaver" studies, examining the situations of families whose welfare cases have been closed. Initial study results found that a majority of survey respondents who had left welfare were now working, typically for more than thirty hours a week, and typically in jobs with wages below the poverty line. A number of the leaver studies also seek information concerning the child care arrangements or use of child care subsidies by families leaving welfare. This paper describes key findings from a review of data relevant to child care gathered through surveys of families who have left welfare. (author abstract)

    In light of significant welfare caseload declines since the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, many questions have been raised about the circumstances of families and children no longer receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance. In response to these questions, a number of states have initiated what have come to be known as "leaver" studies, examining the situations of families whose welfare cases have been closed. Initial study results found that a majority of survey respondents who had left welfare were now working, typically for more than thirty hours a week, and typically in jobs with wages below the poverty line. A number of the leaver studies also seek information concerning the child care arrangements or use of child care subsidies by families leaving welfare. This paper describes key findings from a review of data relevant to child care gathered through surveys of families who have left welfare. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Loprest, Pamela J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    This study examines the economic status of a nationally representative sample of families who left welfare in the early period after federal welfare reform. It uses data from the National Survey of America’s Families. I compare leaver families’ outcomes with those of other low-income families who have not recently received welfare to aid interpretation of how leaver families are faring. I find that a majority of welfare leavers left because of work and were employed at the time of the interview. I also find that hourly wages, monthly earnings, and job characteristics all indicate that leavers are entering the low end of the labor market, where they are working in much the same circumstances as near-poor and low-income mothers who have not recently been on welfare.

    I conclude that the considerable similarities in wages and other employment characteristics between leavers and low-income mothers who have not recently been on welfare suggest that policies to encourage and support work might usefully be focused more generally on low-income families with children rather than...

    This study examines the economic status of a nationally representative sample of families who left welfare in the early period after federal welfare reform. It uses data from the National Survey of America’s Families. I compare leaver families’ outcomes with those of other low-income families who have not recently received welfare to aid interpretation of how leaver families are faring. I find that a majority of welfare leavers left because of work and were employed at the time of the interview. I also find that hourly wages, monthly earnings, and job characteristics all indicate that leavers are entering the low end of the labor market, where they are working in much the same circumstances as near-poor and low-income mothers who have not recently been on welfare.

    I conclude that the considerable similarities in wages and other employment characteristics between leavers and low-income mothers who have not recently been on welfare suggest that policies to encourage and support work might usefully be focused more generally on low-income families with children rather than directing services specifically to former welfare recipients. I also conclude that there are continuing issues for concern about welfare leavers’ transitions. Nearly a third of those who left welfare during this time period had returned to welfare and were receiving benefits in 1997. And a sizable proportion (about 25 percent) of leavers are not working and have no partner working. It should be noted that this research focuses on an early group of leavers in relation to welfare reform. Future groups of leavers may have different experiences, especially if they face a less favorable labor market. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pearson, Jessica; Thoennes, Nancy; Griswold, Esther Ann
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    Brief interviews with 1,082 applicants for public assistance in four Colorado welfare offices show that 40% disclose current or past abuse. When apprised of the option of obtaining an exemption to the child support requirements of the new welfare reform law, only 6.7% of victims (2.7% of applicants) expressed an interest in applying. Most women said they wanted child support and that its pursuit would pose no danger. Only one-third of the victims who expressed an interest in applying for an exemption were granted one. Two-thirds were denied because they lacked sufficient documentation to corroborate their claims of potential harm. (Author abstract)

    Brief interviews with 1,082 applicants for public assistance in four Colorado welfare offices show that 40% disclose current or past abuse. When apprised of the option of obtaining an exemption to the child support requirements of the new welfare reform law, only 6.7% of victims (2.7% of applicants) expressed an interest in applying. Most women said they wanted child support and that its pursuit would pose no danger. Only one-third of the victims who expressed an interest in applying for an exemption were granted one. Two-thirds were denied because they lacked sufficient documentation to corroborate their claims of potential harm. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Campbell, M.K.; Honess-Morreale, L.; Farrell, D.; Carbone, E.; Brasure, M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    This article describes the development and pilot evaluation of a tailored multimedia program to improve dietary behavior among 378 low-income women enrolled in the Food Stamp program in Durham, North Carolina. After randomization to intervention or control groups, participants completed a baseline survey and were resurveyed 1-3 months post-intervention. Measures included dietary fat intake assessed using a brief food-frequency questionnaire, stage of change, knowledge of low-fat foods, self-efficacy, and eating behavior questions. The computer-based intervention consisted of a tailored soap opera and interactive 'infomercials' that provided individualized feedback about dietary fat intake, knowledge, and strategies for lowering fat based on stage of change. At follow-up, intervention group participants had improved significantly in knowledge (P

    This article describes the development and pilot evaluation of a tailored multimedia program to improve dietary behavior among 378 low-income women enrolled in the Food Stamp program in Durham, North Carolina. After randomization to intervention or control groups, participants completed a baseline survey and were resurveyed 1-3 months post-intervention. Measures included dietary fat intake assessed using a brief food-frequency questionnaire, stage of change, knowledge of low-fat foods, self-efficacy, and eating behavior questions. The computer-based intervention consisted of a tailored soap opera and interactive 'infomercials' that provided individualized feedback about dietary fat intake, knowledge, and strategies for lowering fat based on stage of change. At follow-up, intervention group participants had improved significantly in knowledge (P

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