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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Wickizer, Thomas M.; Campbell, Kevin; Krupski, Antoinette; Stark, Kenneth
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    In 1996, Congress passed sweeping welfare reform, abolishing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Each state now administers its own welfare-to-work program under broad federal guidelines, which require eligible adult recipients to work or perform community service. High-risk welfare recipients, especially those with chemical dependency problems, face significant obstacles in their efforts to achieve greater self-sufficiency under the new welfare-to-work programs. State databases were used to track employment outcomes for AFDC clients admitted to treatment for chemical dependency in Washington State during a two-year period. Exposure to treatment was associated with a greater likelihood of becoming employed and with increased earnings for those who became employed. Ensuring that welfare recipients with substance abuse problems have access to appropriate treatment and vocational services is critical if welfare-to-work programs are to promote greater economic self-sufficiency. (Author abstract)

    In 1996, Congress passed sweeping welfare reform, abolishing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Each state now administers its own welfare-to-work program under broad federal guidelines, which require eligible adult recipients to work or perform community service. High-risk welfare recipients, especially those with chemical dependency problems, face significant obstacles in their efforts to achieve greater self-sufficiency under the new welfare-to-work programs. State databases were used to track employment outcomes for AFDC clients admitted to treatment for chemical dependency in Washington State during a two-year period. Exposure to treatment was associated with a greater likelihood of becoming employed and with increased earnings for those who became employed. Ensuring that welfare recipients with substance abuse problems have access to appropriate treatment and vocational services is critical if welfare-to-work programs are to promote greater economic self-sufficiency. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Harvey, Carol; Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    Beginning in 1962, Section 1115 of the Social Security Act allowed the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services to waive specific provisions of the act within individual states, allowing them to implement welfare experiments or demonstration projects to reduce welfare recipiency, ease transitions into the labor market for welfare clients, or otherwise advance the objectives of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. The period between 1987 and 1996 was an especially active time for welfare reform waiver applications. Each Section 1115 waiver application required a plan for evaluating the effects of the proposed changes in the AFDC program. This period of active welfare reform and experimentation, accompanied by a rigorous evaluation component, held the promise of an unparalleled opportunity to examine and document the effects of proposed welfare reform measures. In this paper we review the Section 1115 welfare reform and evaluation activity conducted by states during the Bush and Clinton administrations, ending in August 1996 when the Personal...

    Beginning in 1962, Section 1115 of the Social Security Act allowed the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services to waive specific provisions of the act within individual states, allowing them to implement welfare experiments or demonstration projects to reduce welfare recipiency, ease transitions into the labor market for welfare clients, or otherwise advance the objectives of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. The period between 1987 and 1996 was an especially active time for welfare reform waiver applications. Each Section 1115 waiver application required a plan for evaluating the effects of the proposed changes in the AFDC program. This period of active welfare reform and experimentation, accompanied by a rigorous evaluation component, held the promise of an unparalleled opportunity to examine and document the effects of proposed welfare reform measures. In this paper we review the Section 1115 welfare reform and evaluation activity conducted by states during the Bush and Clinton administrations, ending in August 1996 when the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was passed by Congress. We base the review on publicly available data from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and on interviews we conducted with both state project managers and evaluators from each of the 44 states that had received Section 1115 welfare reform waivers between 1992 and the passage of the 1996 welfare reform act. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Michalopoulos, Charles; Robins, Philip K.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This paper examines employment and child-care choices of single-parent families with young children in the United States and Canada, using a pooled data set based on recent national surveys in each country. We find that the employment and child-care choices of Canadian families are similar to those of U.S. families. Estimates of a model of employment and child-care choices indicate significant effects of child-care subsidies, child-care prices, and wage rates on employment and child-care choices. (author abstract)

    This paper examines employment and child-care choices of single-parent families with young children in the United States and Canada, using a pooled data set based on recent national surveys in each country. We find that the employment and child-care choices of Canadian families are similar to those of U.S. families. Estimates of a model of employment and child-care choices indicate significant effects of child-care subsidies, child-care prices, and wage rates on employment and child-care choices. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wimberly, Catherine
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    The growth of single-mother families in the early 1990s, and contemporaneous research on the connection between the nonpayment of child support and the number of those single-mother families on state assistance, led the 102nd Congress to conclude that stricter enforcement of child support obligations would shrink the welfare rolls. The Child Support Recovery Act of 1992 (CSRA) was passed with the immediate programmatic goal of tracking down and prosecuting the most errant noncustodial fathers, or 'deadbeats,' who flee their home states to avoid paying child support. Prosecuting high-profile offenders, proponents reasoned, would effectuate Congress' second programmatic goal of deterring other noncustodial fathers from shirking their child support obligations. The CSRA also sought to achieve the normative goal of restoring traditional gender roles and family norms by specifying that federal funds be used to ensure that men reattach themselves financially to their children and their children's mothers. This note documents the advent of the federal government's involvement in the...

    The growth of single-mother families in the early 1990s, and contemporaneous research on the connection between the nonpayment of child support and the number of those single-mother families on state assistance, led the 102nd Congress to conclude that stricter enforcement of child support obligations would shrink the welfare rolls. The Child Support Recovery Act of 1992 (CSRA) was passed with the immediate programmatic goal of tracking down and prosecuting the most errant noncustodial fathers, or 'deadbeats,' who flee their home states to avoid paying child support. Prosecuting high-profile offenders, proponents reasoned, would effectuate Congress' second programmatic goal of deterring other noncustodial fathers from shirking their child support obligations. The CSRA also sought to achieve the normative goal of restoring traditional gender roles and family norms by specifying that federal funds be used to ensure that men reattach themselves financially to their children and their children's mothers. This note documents the advent of the federal government's involvement in the criminal prosecution of child support evaders, and explores the ramifications the CSRA has had and will continue to have on the people who comprise single-mother households. I approach the issue from several analytical frameworks, discussing the privacy rights and practical needs of custodial mothers and their children, and the equal protection interests of noncustodial fathers. I also examine the theoretical tensions reflected in the CSRA's legislative history and subsequent amendment as well as the patterns of criminal prosecutions and convictions under the Act. This discussion leads to the modest suggestion that prosecuting child support evaders at the state and local level is more effective, as well as to the more radical proposal of eliminating most child support collection efforts and instead using these federal and state resources to strengthen single-mother families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Greene, Angela D.; Moore, Kristin A.
    Reference Type: Report, Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This study uses early descriptive data from the National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies (NEWWS) Child Outcome Study, a sub-study of the larger random assignment evaluation of the Federal JOBS program, to answer two timely and important questions. First, what factors predict father involvement among nonresident fathers of young children who receive welfare? And second, is nonresident father involvement associated with better outcomes for these children? The three measures of nonresident father involvement examined are father-child visitation, formal child support payments received through the welfare office, and informal child support, such as money given directly to the mother, groceries, clothes, or other items. Findings reveal that while only 16.6% of fathers provided child support through the formal system during the past year, a considerably larger proportion, 42.3%, provided informal child support, and 67% visited at least once in the past year. Informal support and father-child visitation are the most highly correlated forms of involvement, and they share many of...

    This study uses early descriptive data from the National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies (NEWWS) Child Outcome Study, a sub-study of the larger random assignment evaluation of the Federal JOBS program, to answer two timely and important questions. First, what factors predict father involvement among nonresident fathers of young children who receive welfare? And second, is nonresident father involvement associated with better outcomes for these children? The three measures of nonresident father involvement examined are father-child visitation, formal child support payments received through the welfare office, and informal child support, such as money given directly to the mother, groceries, clothes, or other items. Findings reveal that while only 16.6% of fathers provided child support through the formal system during the past year, a considerably larger proportion, 42.3%, provided informal child support, and 67% visited at least once in the past year. Informal support and father-child visitation are the most highly correlated forms of involvement, and they share many of the same predictors. Only two predictors are significant and in the same direction for all three measures of nonresident father involvement. Father's residence in the same state as the focal child and the provision of support for the child from the father's family are associated with a higher likelihood of his involvement. In general, findings for the child well-being measures show that monetary and material contributions from the father, especially contributions provided informally, are positively associated with more positive child well-being outcomes. (author abstract)
    
    This article was adapted from a report developed by Child Trends October 1996.

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