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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Pei, Zhuan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    Conventional labor supply studies assume constant eligibility monitoring of income-tested program participants, but this is not true for most programs. For example, states can allow children to enroll in Medicaid/CHIP for 12 months regardless of family income changes. A long recertification period reduces monitoring costs but is predicted to induce program participation by temporary income adjustments. However, I find little evidence of strategic behavior from the 2001 and 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Given the lack of dynamic responses, I propose a framework to compute the optimal recertification period and find 12 months to be its lower bound. (Author abstract)

    Conventional labor supply studies assume constant eligibility monitoring of income-tested program participants, but this is not true for most programs. For example, states can allow children to enroll in Medicaid/CHIP for 12 months regardless of family income changes. A long recertification period reduces monitoring costs but is predicted to induce program participation by temporary income adjustments. However, I find little evidence of strategic behavior from the 2001 and 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Given the lack of dynamic responses, I propose a framework to compute the optimal recertification period and find 12 months to be its lower bound. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: McMorrow, Stacey; Kenney, Genevieve; Waidmann, Timothy; Anderson, Nathaniel
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Objective: To provide updated information on the potential substitution of public for private coverage among low-income children by examining the type of coverage held by children before they enrolled in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and exploring the extent to which children covered by CHIP had access to private coverage while they were enrolled.

    Methods: We conducted a major household telephone survey in 2012 of enrollees and disenrollees in CHIP in 10 states. We used the survey responses and Medicaid/CHIP administrative data to estimate the coverage distribution of all new enrollees in the 12 months before CHIP enrollment and to identify children who may have had access to employer coverage through one of their parents while enrolled in CHIP.

    Results: About 13% of new enrollees had any private coverage in the 12 months before enrolling in CHIP, and most were found to have lost that coverage as a result of parental job loss. About 40% of CHIP enrollees had a parent with an employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) policy, but only half reported that the...

    Objective: To provide updated information on the potential substitution of public for private coverage among low-income children by examining the type of coverage held by children before they enrolled in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and exploring the extent to which children covered by CHIP had access to private coverage while they were enrolled.

    Methods: We conducted a major household telephone survey in 2012 of enrollees and disenrollees in CHIP in 10 states. We used the survey responses and Medicaid/CHIP administrative data to estimate the coverage distribution of all new enrollees in the 12 months before CHIP enrollment and to identify children who may have had access to employer coverage through one of their parents while enrolled in CHIP.

    Results: About 13% of new enrollees had any private coverage in the 12 months before enrolling in CHIP, and most were found to have lost that coverage as a result of parental job loss. About 40% of CHIP enrollees had a parent with an employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) policy, but only half reported that the policy could cover the child. Approximately 30% of new enrollees had public coverage during the year before but were uninsured just before enrolling.

    Conclusions: Access to private coverage among CHIP enrollees is relatively limited. Furthermore, even when there is potential access to ESI, affordability is a serious concern for parents, making it possible that many children with access to ESI would remain uninsured in the absence of CHIP. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wheaton, Laura; Lynch, Victoria; Loprest, Pamela; Huber, Erika
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    More than one-third of all children were eligible for both Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Medicaid/Childrens Health Insurance Program (CHIP) benefits in 2011, the most recent year of data available. Far fewer adults were jointly eligible. Reasons for the difference include childrens' high poverty rates and state eligibility policies. However, joint participation rates (the percent of eligibles receiving benefits) suggest that many eligibles were not participating. In four out of five of states with available data, less than three-quarters of those jointly eligible (adults and children) were receiving both benefits. Efforts to streamline and integrate application systems have the potential to improve program reach to families in need. (author abstract)

    More than one-third of all children were eligible for both Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Medicaid/Childrens Health Insurance Program (CHIP) benefits in 2011, the most recent year of data available. Far fewer adults were jointly eligible. Reasons for the difference include childrens' high poverty rates and state eligibility policies. However, joint participation rates (the percent of eligibles receiving benefits) suggest that many eligibles were not participating. In four out of five of states with available data, less than three-quarters of those jointly eligible (adults and children) were receiving both benefits. Efforts to streamline and integrate application systems have the potential to improve program reach to families in need. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Abdus, Salam; Hudson, Julie; Hill, Steven C.; Selden, Thomas M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Both Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which are run by the states and funded by federal and state dollars, offer health insurance coverage for low-income children. Thirty-three states charged premiums for children at some income ranges in CHIP or Medicaid in 2013. Using data from the 1999–2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, we show that the relationship between premiums and coverage varies considerably by income level and by parental access to employer-sponsored insurance. Among children with family incomes above 150 percent of the federal poverty level, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 1.6-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance may be higher among those children whose parents lack an offer of employer-sponsored insurance than among those whose parents have such an offer. Among children with family incomes of 101–150 percent of poverty, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 6.7-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage and a 3....

    Both Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which are run by the states and funded by federal and state dollars, offer health insurance coverage for low-income children. Thirty-three states charged premiums for children at some income ranges in CHIP or Medicaid in 2013. Using data from the 1999–2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, we show that the relationship between premiums and coverage varies considerably by income level and by parental access to employer-sponsored insurance. Among children with family incomes above 150 percent of the federal poverty level, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 1.6-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance may be higher among those children whose parents lack an offer of employer-sponsored insurance than among those whose parents have such an offer. Among children with family incomes of 101–150 percent of poverty, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 6.7-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage and a 3.3-percentage-point increase in uninsurance. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance is even larger among children whose parents lack offers of employer coverage. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Harrington, Mary; Kenney, Genevieve M.; Smith, Kimberly; Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Trenholm, Christopher; Hill, Ian; Orzol, Sean; McMorrow, Stacey; Hoag, Sheila; Haley, Jennifer; Zickafoose, Joseph; Waidmann, Timothy; Dye, Claire; Benatar, Sarah; Qian, Connie; Buettgens, Matthew; Fisher, Tyler; Lynch, Victoria; Hula, Lauren; Anderson, Nathaniel; Finegold, Kenneth
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    The evaluation found CHIP to be successful in nearly every area examined. CHIP succeeded in expanding health insurance coverage to the population it is intended to serve, particularly children who would otherwise be uninsured, increasing their access to needed health care, and reducing the financial burdens and stress on families associated with meeting children’s health care needs. These positive impacts were found for children and families in states with different CHIP structures and features, across demographic and socioeconomic groups, and for children with different health needs. Medicaid and CHIP have worked as intended to provide an insurance safety net for low-income children during times of economic hardship. Awareness of both Medicaid and CHIP was high among low-income families, most newly enrolling families found the application process at least somewhat easy, and the vast majority of children remained enrolled through the annual renewal period.

    The evaluation also identified a few areas where there is room for improvement. One in four children in CHIP had some...

    The evaluation found CHIP to be successful in nearly every area examined. CHIP succeeded in expanding health insurance coverage to the population it is intended to serve, particularly children who would otherwise be uninsured, increasing their access to needed health care, and reducing the financial burdens and stress on families associated with meeting children’s health care needs. These positive impacts were found for children and families in states with different CHIP structures and features, across demographic and socioeconomic groups, and for children with different health needs. Medicaid and CHIP have worked as intended to provide an insurance safety net for low-income children during times of economic hardship. Awareness of both Medicaid and CHIP was high among low-income families, most newly enrolling families found the application process at least somewhat easy, and the vast majority of children remained enrolled through the annual renewal period.

    The evaluation also identified a few areas where there is room for improvement. One in four children in CHIP had some type of unmet need, and although most CHIP enrollees received annual well-child checkups, fewer than half received key preventive services such as immunizations and health screenings during those visits, and fewer than 40 percent had after-hours access to a usual source of care provider. Although most CHIP enrollees received annual dental checkups, a significant share did not get recommended follow-up dental treatment. There is also room for improvement in reducing the percentage of children who cycle off and back on to Medicaid and CHIP, and reducing gaps in coverage associated with moving between Medicaid and separate CHIP programs. And although participation rates have grown to high levels in most states, further effort could be targeted to the 3.7 million children who are eligible for Medicaid or CHIP but remain uninsured. (author abstract)

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