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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Mattingly, Marybeth J.; Schaefer, Andrew; Gagnon, Douglas J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    The mathematics of poverty suggest that family composition changes may influence poverty rates and, in particular, that the addition of a new child increases estimated family expenses and correspondingly the family’s poverty threshold. This analysis of 2015 Current Population Survey data finds that those families more likely to live in poverty—Black and Hispanic families, families with children, less-educated families, and those living in more rural or highly urban environments—are at heightened risk of falling into poverty with an additional child. (Author abstract)

    The mathematics of poverty suggest that family composition changes may influence poverty rates and, in particular, that the addition of a new child increases estimated family expenses and correspondingly the family’s poverty threshold. This analysis of 2015 Current Population Survey data finds that those families more likely to live in poverty—Black and Hispanic families, families with children, less-educated families, and those living in more rural or highly urban environments—are at heightened risk of falling into poverty with an additional child. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria; Buitrago, Paola; Leroy de la Briere, Benedicte; Newhouse, David; Rubiano Matulevich, Eliana; Kinnon, Scott; Suarez-Becerra, Pablo
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This paper uses household surveys from 89 countries to look at gender differences in poverty in the developing world. In the absence of individual-level poverty data, the paper looks at what can we learn in terms of gender differences by looking at the available individual and household level information. The estimates are based on the same surveys and welfare measures as official World Bank poverty estimates. The paper focuses on the relationship between age, sex and poverty. And finds that, girls and women of reproductive age are more likely to live in poor households (below the international poverty line) than boys and men. It finds that 122 women between the ages of 25 and 34 live in poor households for every 100 men of the same age group. The analysis also examines the household profiles of the poor, seeking to go beyond headship definitions. Using a demographic household composition shows that nuclear family households of two married adults and children account for 41 percent of poor households, and are the most frequent household where poor women are found. Using an...

    This paper uses household surveys from 89 countries to look at gender differences in poverty in the developing world. In the absence of individual-level poverty data, the paper looks at what can we learn in terms of gender differences by looking at the available individual and household level information. The estimates are based on the same surveys and welfare measures as official World Bank poverty estimates. The paper focuses on the relationship between age, sex and poverty. And finds that, girls and women of reproductive age are more likely to live in poor households (below the international poverty line) than boys and men. It finds that 122 women between the ages of 25 and 34 live in poor households for every 100 men of the same age group. The analysis also examines the household profiles of the poor, seeking to go beyond headship definitions. Using a demographic household composition shows that nuclear family households of two married adults and children account for 41 percent of poor households, and are the most frequent household where poor women are found. Using an economic household composition classification, households with a male earner, children and a non-income earner spouse are the most frequent among the poor at 36 percent, and the more frequent household where poor women live. For individuals, as well as for households, the presence of children increases the household likelihood to be poor, and this has a specific impact on women, but does not fully explain the observed female poverty penalty. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Winship, Scott; Reeves, Richard V.; Guyot, Katherine
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Black Americans born poor are much less likely to move up the income ladder than those in other racial groups, especially whites. Why? Many factors are at work, including educational inequalities, neighborhood effects, workplace discrimination, parenting, access to credit, rates of incarceration, and so on. In a new paper, the authors confirm the stark differences in upward earnings mobility for black men compared to both black women and whites. They also confirm that black women, despite their solid earnings mobility, have very low family income mobility. They then estimate the impact of racial differences in marriage rates by simulating higher marriage rates among black women and find no significant effects. (Edited author introduction)

    Black Americans born poor are much less likely to move up the income ladder than those in other racial groups, especially whites. Why? Many factors are at work, including educational inequalities, neighborhood effects, workplace discrimination, parenting, access to credit, rates of incarceration, and so on. In a new paper, the authors confirm the stark differences in upward earnings mobility for black men compared to both black women and whites. They also confirm that black women, despite their solid earnings mobility, have very low family income mobility. They then estimate the impact of racial differences in marriage rates by simulating higher marriage rates among black women and find no significant effects. (Edited author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Institute for Research on Poverty - University of Wisconsin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    There is an ongoing and lively debate over the size and composition of the deep poor population (commonly defined as those living below half the poverty threshold), how deep poverty should be measured, and whether the percentage of the United States population living in deep poverty has increased or decreased over the past 20 years. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that a portion of the U.S. population lives on very little cash income. Some analysts have argued that welfare policy shifts in the 1990s, which reallocated public benefits from nonworking to working households and increasingly prioritized in-kind benefits over direct cash transfers, are important factors. Whereas low-income working families benefited from these policy changes, families disconnected from the formal labor market appear to have fared less well as eligibility for public assistance became increasingly contingent on work. At greatest risk of deep poverty are families headed by a single parent, formerly incarcerated individuals and their children, racial/ethnic minority populations, immigrants, youths aging...

    There is an ongoing and lively debate over the size and composition of the deep poor population (commonly defined as those living below half the poverty threshold), how deep poverty should be measured, and whether the percentage of the United States population living in deep poverty has increased or decreased over the past 20 years. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that a portion of the U.S. population lives on very little cash income. Some analysts have argued that welfare policy shifts in the 1990s, which reallocated public benefits from nonworking to working households and increasingly prioritized in-kind benefits over direct cash transfers, are important factors. Whereas low-income working families benefited from these policy changes, families disconnected from the formal labor market appear to have fared less well as eligibility for public assistance became increasingly contingent on work. At greatest risk of deep poverty are families headed by a single parent, formerly incarcerated individuals and their children, racial/ethnic minority populations, immigrants, youths aging out of foster care, and individuals who are not working or receiving cash welfare. For many of these families, instability in employment and inadequacy of hours and wages, rather than not working at all, appears to be predominant (although long-term unemployment is also a significant factor). Moreover, many such families face barriers to sustained employment such as physical and mental illness, disability, addiction, and lack of transportation. This brief explores current understanding of deep poverty and identifies important areas for new research to better inform policy aimed at preventing and reducing deep poverty and its effects. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Koohi-Kamali, Feridoon; Liu, Ran
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2017

    The combined influence of gender and race has been a defining feature of poverty in the USA, especially for single mothers. Recent applications of capability-based multidimensional poverty (MP) measurement to US data have examined race and gender, but little attention has been given to the intersection of the two. We address this gap in the literature on multidimensional poverty by employing household-level US Census data for the years 2006–2010 that are from Pennsylvania, a state with key income poverty indicators close to the mid-poverty values for all fifty states. We employ a dual cut-off procedure to present MP measures by levels of population sub-groups. The poverty ranking by single motherhood shows Hispanics are the most deprived, Whites as the least deprived, and African–Americans coming in between. Our findings suggest that the provision of child care facilities can prove effective for poverty reduction; and the improvement of language skills is likely to be critical for Hispanics. (Author abstract)

    The combined influence of gender and race has been a defining feature of poverty in the USA, especially for single mothers. Recent applications of capability-based multidimensional poverty (MP) measurement to US data have examined race and gender, but little attention has been given to the intersection of the two. We address this gap in the literature on multidimensional poverty by employing household-level US Census data for the years 2006–2010 that are from Pennsylvania, a state with key income poverty indicators close to the mid-poverty values for all fifty states. We employ a dual cut-off procedure to present MP measures by levels of population sub-groups. The poverty ranking by single motherhood shows Hispanics are the most deprived, Whites as the least deprived, and African–Americans coming in between. Our findings suggest that the provision of child care facilities can prove effective for poverty reduction; and the improvement of language skills is likely to be critical for Hispanics. (Author abstract)

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