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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Henry, Meghan; Watt, Rian; Rosenthal, Lily; Shivji, Azim
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This report outlines the key findings of the 2017 Point-In-Time (PIT) count and Housing Inventory Count (HIC) conducted in January 2017. Specifically, this report provides 2017 national, state, and CoC-level PIT and HIC estimates of homelessness, as well as estimates of chronically homeless persons, homeless veterans, and homeless children and youth. (Author summary)

    This report outlines the key findings of the 2017 Point-In-Time (PIT) count and Housing Inventory Count (HIC) conducted in January 2017. Specifically, this report provides 2017 national, state, and CoC-level PIT and HIC estimates of homelessness, as well as estimates of chronically homeless persons, homeless veterans, and homeless children and youth. (Author summary)

  • Individual Author: Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Cusack, Meagan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    The HUD-VA Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program combines HUD’s housing choice vouchers, administered by public housing authorities (PHAs), with VA case management to offer homeless Veterans permanent supportive housing. The HUD-VASH Exit study, commissioned by HUD and VA, investigated HUD-VASH at four sites: Houston, TX; Los Angeles and Palo Alto, CA; and Philadelphia, PA. The study examined program implementation, the movement of Veterans from homelessness to being housed, and the nature of Veterans’ exits from HUD-VASH. To do this, the research team analyzed administrative data covering 2008 to 2014 at the four sites, and surveyed Veterans and conducted site visits (including interviews with staff and Veterans) between 2011 and 2014. As such the study captures HUD-VASH during a time of transformation. In 2008, HUD-VASH served fewer than 2,000 Veterans. By 2014, HUD-VASH was a major program that housed 53,000 Veterans and had served more than 80,000 Veterans. The study defined three HUD-VASH Veteran groups: (1) stayers (Veterans in the program for at least 600 days), (2) leased...

    The HUD-VA Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program combines HUD’s housing choice vouchers, administered by public housing authorities (PHAs), with VA case management to offer homeless Veterans permanent supportive housing. The HUD-VASH Exit study, commissioned by HUD and VA, investigated HUD-VASH at four sites: Houston, TX; Los Angeles and Palo Alto, CA; and Philadelphia, PA. The study examined program implementation, the movement of Veterans from homelessness to being housed, and the nature of Veterans’ exits from HUD-VASH. To do this, the research team analyzed administrative data covering 2008 to 2014 at the four sites, and surveyed Veterans and conducted site visits (including interviews with staff and Veterans) between 2011 and 2014. As such the study captures HUD-VASH during a time of transformation. In 2008, HUD-VASH served fewer than 2,000 Veterans. By 2014, HUD-VASH was a major program that housed 53,000 Veterans and had served more than 80,000 Veterans. The study defined three HUD-VASH Veteran groups: (1) stayers (Veterans in the program for at least 600 days), (2) leased-up exiters (Veterans who exited after leasing up), and (3) nonleased exiters (Veterans who exited before accessing housing). “Exit” was defined as leaving VA case management as recorded in VA administrative data by case managers. The study finds that about half of the leased-up exiters left HUD-VASH for positive reasons such as accomplishing their goals or increased income, but that only a quarter of nonleased exiters had positive reasons for exit. Common negative reasons for exit included housing difficulties, loss of contact with the program, illness, incarceration, and non-compliance with program rules. Specific recommendations to ensure continued program effectiveness converge around (1) improving coordination of HUD and VA processes in HUD-VASH sites; (2) targeting financial resources for specific situations such as move-in, threat of eviction, and transitioning out of HUD-VASH; and (3) ensuring continuity of care for Veterans in the program. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Henry, Meghan; Watt, Rian; Rosenthal, Lily; Shivji, Azim
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) releases the Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress (AHAR) in two parts. Part 1 provides Point-in- Time (PIT) estimates, offering a snapshot of homelessness—both sheltered and unsheltered— on a single night. The one-night counts are conducted during the last 10 days of January each year. The PIT counts also provide an estimate of the number of people experiencing homelessness within particular homeless populations, such as people with chronic patterns of homelessness and veterans experiencing homelessness.  This year serves as the baseline year for estimates of unaccompanied youth, that is, people under the age of 25 who are experiencing homelessness on their own, not in the company of their parent or guardian, and who are not part of a family. Also for the first time this year, Part 1 of the AHAR includes some examination of the changes in demographic characteristics of people experiencing homelessness.  To understand our nation’s capacity to serve people who are currently or formerly experiencing homelessness, this...

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) releases the Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress (AHAR) in two parts. Part 1 provides Point-in- Time (PIT) estimates, offering a snapshot of homelessness—both sheltered and unsheltered— on a single night. The one-night counts are conducted during the last 10 days of January each year. The PIT counts also provide an estimate of the number of people experiencing homelessness within particular homeless populations, such as people with chronic patterns of homelessness and veterans experiencing homelessness.  This year serves as the baseline year for estimates of unaccompanied youth, that is, people under the age of 25 who are experiencing homelessness on their own, not in the company of their parent or guardian, and who are not part of a family. Also for the first time this year, Part 1 of the AHAR includes some examination of the changes in demographic characteristics of people experiencing homelessness.  To understand our nation’s capacity to serve people who are currently or formerly experiencing homelessness, this report also provides counts of beds in emergency shelters, transitional housing programs, safe havens, rapid rehousing programs, permanent supportive housing programs, and other permanent housing.  In 2017, the PIT estimates of people experiencing homelessness in sheltered and unsheltered locations, as well as the number of beds available to serve them, were reported by 399 Continuums of Care (CoC) nationwide. These 399 CoCs covered virtually the entire United States. The Northern Mariana Islands are the newest CoC and reported PIT and HIC data for the first time in 2017. (Edited author introduction)

      HUD has methodological standards for conducting the PIT counts, and CoCs use a variety of approved methods to produce the counts. The guide for PIT methodologies can be found here: https://www.hudexchange.info/resource/4036/ point-in-time-count-methodology-guide. HUD reviews the data for accuracy and quality prior to creating the estimates for this report. (Author introduction) 

  • Individual Author: Henry, Meghan; Watt, Rian; Rosenthal, Lily; Shivji, Azim
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    All Homeless People

    • On a single night in 2016, 549,928 people were experiencing homelessness in the United States. A majority (68%) was staying in emergency shelters, transitional housing programs, or safe havens, and 32 percent were in unsheltered locations.
    • Over one-fifth of people experiencing homelessness were children (22%), 69 percent were over the age of 24, and nine percent were between the ages of 18 and 24.
    • Between 2015 and 2016, the number of people experiencing homelessness declined by three percent. Declines were composed entirely of people staying in sheltered locations (which declined by 5%). Homelessness increased among people staying in unsheltered locations (by 2%).

    Homelessness by Household Type

    • There were 355,212 people experiencing homelessness as individuals, accounting for 65 percent of the homeless population. Most (89%) were over the age of 24. Ten percent were between 18 and 24, and one percent were under the age of 18.
    • There were 194,716 people in families...

    All Homeless People

    • On a single night in 2016, 549,928 people were experiencing homelessness in the United States. A majority (68%) was staying in emergency shelters, transitional housing programs, or safe havens, and 32 percent were in unsheltered locations.
    • Over one-fifth of people experiencing homelessness were children (22%), 69 percent were over the age of 24, and nine percent were between the ages of 18 and 24.
    • Between 2015 and 2016, the number of people experiencing homelessness declined by three percent. Declines were composed entirely of people staying in sheltered locations (which declined by 5%). Homelessness increased among people staying in unsheltered locations (by 2%).

    Homelessness by Household Type

    • There were 355,212 people experiencing homelessness as individuals, accounting for 65 percent of the homeless population. Most (89%) were over the age of 24. Ten percent were between 18 and 24, and one percent were under the age of 18.
    • There were 194,716 people in families with children experiencing homelessness, representing 35 percent of the homeless population. Of people in families with children, 60 percent were under the age of 18, 32 percent were over 24, and eight percent were between the ages of 18 and 24.
    • Between 2015 and 2016, homelessness among individuals remained relatively flat (declining by less than 1%). Declines in the numbers of sheltered individuals (4%) were offset by increases in the numbers of unsheltered individuals (3%).
    • The number of homeless people in families with children counted on a single night declined by 6 percent between 2015 and 2016, and the number of homeless family households dropped by 5 percent. The number of sheltered people and unsheltered people in families declined by 6 percent.

    Homelessness by Subpopulation

    • In January 2016, 39,471 veterans were experiencing homelessness. Nearly all (97%) were homeless in households without children (as individuals).
    • There were 77,486 individuals and 8,646 people in families with children with chronic patterns of homelessness.
    • Chronic homelessness declined among individuals by seven percent between 2015 and 2016, and by 35 percent between 2007 and 2016.
    • There were 35,686 unaccompanied homeless youth in January 2016. Most (89%) were between the ages of 18 and 24. The remaining 11 percent were unaccompanied children, under the age of 18. (Author summary)

     

  • Individual Author: Byrne, Thomas; Fargo, Jamison D.; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Roberts, Christopher P.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Kane, Vincent
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Objective: This study examined veterans' responses to the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's) universal screen for homelessness and risk of homelessness during the first 12 months of implementation.

    Methods: We calculated the baseline annual frequency of homelessness and risk of homelessness among all veterans who completed an initial screen during the study period. We measured changes in housing status among veterans who initially screened positive and then completed a follow-up screen, assessed factors associated with such changes, and identified distinct risk profiles of veterans who completed a follow-up screen.

    Results: More than 4 million veterans completed an initial screen; 1.8% (n=77,621) screened positive for homelessness or risk of homelessness. Of those who initially screened positive for either homelessness or risk of homelessness and who completed a second screen during the study period, 85.0% (n=15,060) resolved their housing instability prior to their second screen. Age, sex, race, VHA eligibility, and screening location were all associated with...

    Objective: This study examined veterans' responses to the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's) universal screen for homelessness and risk of homelessness during the first 12 months of implementation.

    Methods: We calculated the baseline annual frequency of homelessness and risk of homelessness among all veterans who completed an initial screen during the study period. We measured changes in housing status among veterans who initially screened positive and then completed a follow-up screen, assessed factors associated with such changes, and identified distinct risk profiles of veterans who completed a follow-up screen.

    Results: More than 4 million veterans completed an initial screen; 1.8% (n=77,621) screened positive for homelessness or risk of homelessness. Of those who initially screened positive for either homelessness or risk of homelessness and who completed a second screen during the study period, 85.0% (n=15,060) resolved their housing instability prior to their second screen. Age, sex, race, VHA eligibility, and screening location were all associated with changes in housing stability. We identified four distinct risk profiles for veterans with ongoing housing instability.

    Conclusion: To address homelessness among veterans, efforts should include increased and targeted engagement of veterans experiencing persistent housing instability. (Author abstract)

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