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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2018

    Programs of HUD describes the major rental, mortgage, grant, other assistance, and regulatory programs of the Department. It is through these programs that HUD works to strengthen the housing market to bolster the economy and protect consumers, meet the need for quality affordable rental homes, utilize housing as a platform for improving quality of life, and build inclusive and sustainable communities free from discrimination. (Author abstract) 

    Programs of HUD describes the major rental, mortgage, grant, other assistance, and regulatory programs of the Department. It is through these programs that HUD works to strengthen the housing market to bolster the economy and protect consumers, meet the need for quality affordable rental homes, utilize housing as a platform for improving quality of life, and build inclusive and sustainable communities free from discrimination. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Codd, Nick
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2018

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T) can be a critical part of States’ efforts to help SNAP participants secure the training and employment opportunities they need to reach economic self-sufficiency. The program’s flexibility to provide targeted employment and training services as well as robust supports can make it an effective tool for responding to the needs of SNAP participants that face high barriers to employment, including individuals experiencing homelessness or housing instability. (Author introduction)

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T) can be a critical part of States’ efforts to help SNAP participants secure the training and employment opportunities they need to reach economic self-sufficiency. The program’s flexibility to provide targeted employment and training services as well as robust supports can make it an effective tool for responding to the needs of SNAP participants that face high barriers to employment, including individuals experiencing homelessness or housing instability. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Abdi, Fadumo
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2017

    Posted by Fadumo Abdi, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse Staff

    Housing First is a consumer-driven approach to addressing homelessness that centers on providing homeless people with housing quickly and then providing additional support services as needed. This immediate focus on helping individuals and families access and sustain permanent housing solutions is what differentiates the approach from other homelessness strategies. The primary focus on securing stable and permanent housing first is consistent with what...

    Posted by Fadumo Abdi, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse Staff

    Housing First is a consumer-driven approach to addressing homelessness that centers on providing homeless people with housing quickly and then providing additional support services as needed. This immediate focus on helping individuals and families access and sustain permanent housing solutions is what differentiates the approach from other homelessness strategies. The primary focus on securing stable and permanent housing first is consistent with what individuals and families experiencing homelessness want to achieve when they initially seek services.

    Programs modeled from the Housing First approach share critical elements, including:

    • A focus on helping individuals and families access permanent rental housing as quickly as possible;
    • A variety of supportive services are delivered to promote housing stability and individual well-being on an as-needed and entirely voluntary basis; and
    • A standard lease agreement to housing – as opposed to mandated services compliance.

    For example, Pathways to Housing, the first Housing First program of its kind, was designed to end homelessness and support recovery for individuals with severe psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders by emphasizing consumer choice, psychiatric rehabilitation, and harm reduction. The program addresses homeless individuals’ needs from a consumer perspective which encourages consumers to define their own needs and set clear recovery goals coupled with intensive case management services to provide access to identified services without prerequisites for psychiatric treatment or sobriety. The consumer-centered approach highlighted in Pathways to Housing and other Housing First models is in contrast to other housing assistance models that condition the provision of housing based on participation and compliance with behavioral health, substance treatment, and/or work training program requirements. Other target populations served through the Housing First approach have included homeless families who are experiencing persistent poverty, unemployment, child welfare involvement, or domestic violence.

    Unlike its predecessors, Housing First assumes stable housing must be established before an individual can begin to work toward improving their mental health, financial stability, and self-sufficiency. Research has found that by providing homeless people with immediate housing without prerequisites of participation in treatment services, they were more likely to stay housed for longer and less likely to return to homelessness. Similarly, giving clients the choice of which supportive services they need has also been found to result in reduced psychiatric symptoms and substance use among participants.

    Consistent with the consumer choice perspective that underscores the Housing First approach, there is some variability in the supportive services programming offered to clients even when focusing on the same sub-population. For example, a 12-month evaluation of three programs using Housing First approach to serve homeless individuals with mental illnesses found that clients of all three programs demonstrated positive outcomes relative to sustained housing, increased earnings, and improved symptoms, but varied in terms of housing tenure and support services offered. Programs outlined in the study utilized several successful strategies for the delivery of services including housing-based case managers or daily home visits by coordinators available on a 24/7 basis. Housing inventory also varied by program with some scattering properties among available private apartments and housing facilities stock while other programs solely own properties used for program participants. The ways in which the three programs implemented the Housing First model presented unique success and challenges. For example, the program which owns the housing units is able to provide more client supervision, but this can limit client integration into the broader community. Although each program took different approaches to implementation, each ultimately achieved positive outcomes for the individuals served.

    As more research is conducted on the effects of the Housing First approach, findings suggest programs that adhere to the Housing First’s core elements of unconditional, immediate housing and choice of services demonstrate positive outcomes. With a growing recognition of the Housing First approach some practitioners have begun to describe it as a whole-system orientation and response to the problem of homelessness. This holistic orientation is influencing how communities across the country respond to the persistent challenges posed by homelessness particularly among those with complex needs. For example, The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has funded a study to assess the effects of five programs using the Housing First model for high need families. The evaluation targets families in the child welfare system struggling with substance use, mental health issues, and unstable housing. Through the study, the program hopes to determine its ability to provide trauma-informed care, develop working relationships with local housing agencies, and capacity to connect families to community resources. Continued research and practice evidence will serve as helpful resource guides and implementation toolkits for the future as more communities implement a Housing First approach to address the myriad challenges of homeless individuals and families with the greatest needs.

    Learn more about the Housing First model in the SSRC Library:

    For more resources, check out the SSRC Library and subscribe to the SSRC or follow us on Twitter to receive updates about upcoming events, new library materials on self-sufficiency topics of interest to you and more.

  • Individual Author: Brown, Scott R.; Shinn, Marybeth; Khadduri, Jill
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This brief examines the well-being of young children 20 months after staying in emergency homeless shelters with their families.

    Using data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Family Options Study, the brief explores young children’s:

    •pre-reading skills

    •pre-math skills

    •developmental delays

    •behavior challenges

    It draws comparisons between children who experienced homelessness and national norms for children of the same age.

    The brief also examines housing instability, child care instability, and enrollment in center-based care and Head Start, and associations between housing and child care stability and child well-being. (Author abstract)

    This brief examines the well-being of young children 20 months after staying in emergency homeless shelters with their families.

    Using data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Family Options Study, the brief explores young children’s:

    •pre-reading skills

    •pre-math skills

    •developmental delays

    •behavior challenges

    It draws comparisons between children who experienced homelessness and national norms for children of the same age.

    The brief also examines housing instability, child care instability, and enrollment in center-based care and Head Start, and associations between housing and child care stability and child well-being. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ferguson, Daniel
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    President Obama signed the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 into law on November 19, 2014, reauthorizing the federal child care program for the first time since 1996. The law has important implications for child care policy across the United States, in areas including provider health and safety requirements, consumer education, subsidy redetermination, quality improvement, and tribal child care. The full statute and a plain language summary are available on the Office of Child Care website, along with continually-updated resources on the reauthorization. The following resources, which can be found in the Research Connections collection, are related to or support the implementation of the reauthorized Child Care and Development Block Grant. They have been grouped in the following categories: official guidance from the U.S. Office of Child Care; Child Care and Development Fund state plans; state policy and administrative data; and state policy options and technical assistance resource, which have been further categorized by policy topics. (Author abstract...

    President Obama signed the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 into law on November 19, 2014, reauthorizing the federal child care program for the first time since 1996. The law has important implications for child care policy across the United States, in areas including provider health and safety requirements, consumer education, subsidy redetermination, quality improvement, and tribal child care. The full statute and a plain language summary are available on the Office of Child Care website, along with continually-updated resources on the reauthorization. The following resources, which can be found in the Research Connections collection, are related to or support the implementation of the reauthorized Child Care and Development Block Grant. They have been grouped in the following categories: official guidance from the U.S. Office of Child Care; Child Care and Development Fund state plans; state policy and administrative data; and state policy options and technical assistance resource, which have been further categorized by policy topics. (Author abstract)

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