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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Martinson, Karin; Copson, Elizabeth; Gardiner, Karen; Kitrosser, Daniel
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous...

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous research design, the study found that the Carreras en Salud program increased hours of occupational training and basic skills instruction received and the attainment of education credentials within an 18-month follow-up period. The program also increased employment in the healthcare field and resulted in a reduction of participants reporting financial hardship. Future reports will examine whether these effects translate into gains in employment and earnings. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Caldwell, Julia T.; Ford, Chandra L.; Wallace, Steven P.; Wang, May C.; Takahashi, Lois M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    This study examined the relationship between racial/ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were merged with the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Segregation was operationalized using the isolation index separately for African Americans and Hispanics. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercepts estimated four outcomes. In rural areas, segregation contributed to worse access to a usual source of health care but higher reports of health care needs being met among African Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.42, CI: 0.96-2.10) and Hispanics (AOR: 1.25, CI: 1.05-1.49). By broadening the spatial scale of segregation beyond urban areas, findings showed the complex interaction between social and spatial factors in rural areas. (Author abstract)

    This study examined the relationship between racial/ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were merged with the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Segregation was operationalized using the isolation index separately for African Americans and Hispanics. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercepts estimated four outcomes. In rural areas, segregation contributed to worse access to a usual source of health care but higher reports of health care needs being met among African Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.42, CI: 0.96-2.10) and Hispanics (AOR: 1.25, CI: 1.05-1.49). By broadening the spatial scale of segregation beyond urban areas, findings showed the complex interaction between social and spatial factors in rural areas. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Henry, Meghan; Watt, Rian; Rosenthal, Lily; Shivji, Azim
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) releases the Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress (AHAR) in two parts. Part 1 provides Point-in- Time (PIT) estimates, offering a snapshot of homelessness—both sheltered and unsheltered— on a single night. The one-night counts are conducted during the last 10 days of January each year. The PIT counts also provide an estimate of the number of people experiencing homelessness within particular homeless populations, such as people with chronic patterns of homelessness and veterans experiencing homelessness.  This year serves as the baseline year for estimates of unaccompanied youth, that is, people under the age of 25 who are experiencing homelessness on their own, not in the company of their parent or guardian, and who are not part of a family. Also for the first time this year, Part 1 of the AHAR includes some examination of the changes in demographic characteristics of people experiencing homelessness.  To understand our nation’s capacity to serve people who are currently or formerly experiencing homelessness, this...

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) releases the Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress (AHAR) in two parts. Part 1 provides Point-in- Time (PIT) estimates, offering a snapshot of homelessness—both sheltered and unsheltered— on a single night. The one-night counts are conducted during the last 10 days of January each year. The PIT counts also provide an estimate of the number of people experiencing homelessness within particular homeless populations, such as people with chronic patterns of homelessness and veterans experiencing homelessness.  This year serves as the baseline year for estimates of unaccompanied youth, that is, people under the age of 25 who are experiencing homelessness on their own, not in the company of their parent or guardian, and who are not part of a family. Also for the first time this year, Part 1 of the AHAR includes some examination of the changes in demographic characteristics of people experiencing homelessness.  To understand our nation’s capacity to serve people who are currently or formerly experiencing homelessness, this report also provides counts of beds in emergency shelters, transitional housing programs, safe havens, rapid rehousing programs, permanent supportive housing programs, and other permanent housing.  In 2017, the PIT estimates of people experiencing homelessness in sheltered and unsheltered locations, as well as the number of beds available to serve them, were reported by 399 Continuums of Care (CoC) nationwide. These 399 CoCs covered virtually the entire United States. The Northern Mariana Islands are the newest CoC and reported PIT and HIC data for the first time in 2017. (Edited author introduction)

      HUD has methodological standards for conducting the PIT counts, and CoCs use a variety of approved methods to produce the counts. The guide for PIT methodologies can be found here: https://www.hudexchange.info/resource/4036/ point-in-time-count-methodology-guide. HUD reviews the data for accuracy and quality prior to creating the estimates for this report. (Author introduction) 

  • Individual Author: Okoro, Catherine A.; Zhao, Guixiang; Fox, Jared B.; Eke, Paul I.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Town, Machell
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, landline- and cellular-telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Data are collected from states, the District of Columbia, and participating U.S. territories on health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, health care access, and use of clinical preventive services (CPS). An optional Health Care Access module was included in the 2014 BRFSS. This report summarizes 2014 BRFSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia on health care access and use of selected CPS recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force or the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices among working-aged adults (aged 18–64 years), by state, state Medicaid expansion status, expanded geographic region, and federal poverty level (FPL). This report also provides analysis of primary type of health insurance coverage at the time of interview, continuity of health insurance coverage during the preceding 12 months, and other health care access measures (i.e.,...

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, landline- and cellular-telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Data are collected from states, the District of Columbia, and participating U.S. territories on health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, health care access, and use of clinical preventive services (CPS). An optional Health Care Access module was included in the 2014 BRFSS. This report summarizes 2014 BRFSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia on health care access and use of selected CPS recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force or the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices among working-aged adults (aged 18–64 years), by state, state Medicaid expansion status, expanded geographic region, and federal poverty level (FPL). This report also provides analysis of primary type of health insurance coverage at the time of interview, continuity of health insurance coverage during the preceding 12 months, and other health care access measures (i.e., unmet health care need because of cost, unmet prescription need because of cost, medical debt [medical bills being paid off over time], number of health care visits during the preceding year, and satisfaction with received health care) from 43 states that included questions from the optional BRFSS Health Care Access module. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Young, Justin R. ; Mattingly, Marybeth J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article, Report
    Year: 2016

    The unemployment rate, a leading indicator of the nation’s economic health, has fallen steadily in the wake of the Great Recession of 2007–09. However, other indicators of labor force strength paint a more complex picture of how workers are faring economically. In this article, we use 1971–2014 data from the Current Population Survey to examine temporal changes in involuntary part-time work—an increasingly common type of underemployment. Our analysis identifies several shifts in involuntary part-time work, including high rates of such work among Hispanic workers since the late 1980s. While this form of underemployment grew substantially among all racial/ethnic groups during the Great Recession, it was especially prevalent among foreign-born Hispanics, in particular those without citizenship. Although our analyses of 2014 data suggest that educational attainment accounts for much of these racial/ethnic and nativity gaps, other factors—namely, job skill, industry of employment, and occupational composition—also help explain the observed differential rates of involuntary part-time...

    The unemployment rate, a leading indicator of the nation’s economic health, has fallen steadily in the wake of the Great Recession of 2007–09. However, other indicators of labor force strength paint a more complex picture of how workers are faring economically. In this article, we use 1971–2014 data from the Current Population Survey to examine temporal changes in involuntary part-time work—an increasingly common type of underemployment. Our analysis identifies several shifts in involuntary part-time work, including high rates of such work among Hispanic workers since the late 1980s. While this form of underemployment grew substantially among all racial/ethnic groups during the Great Recession, it was especially prevalent among foreign-born Hispanics, in particular those without citizenship. Although our analyses of 2014 data suggest that educational attainment accounts for much of these racial/ethnic and nativity gaps, other factors—namely, job skill, industry of employment, and occupational composition—also help explain the observed differential rates of involuntary part-time work. (Author abstract)

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