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  • Individual Author: Desmond, Matthew (Editor)
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2015

    Contents

    Severe Deprivation in America: An Introduction

    Matthew Desmond

    Part I. Severe Deprivation Among the Young and Old

    Trends in Deep Poverty from 1968 to 2011: The Influence of Family Structure, Employment Patterns, and the Safety Net 14

    Liana Fox, Christopher Wimer, Irwin Garfinkel, Neeraj Kaushal, JaeHyun Nam, and Jane Waldfogel

    Compounded Deprivation in the Transition to Adulthood: The Intersection of Racial and Economic Inequality Among Chicagoans, 1995–2013 35

    Kristin L. Perkins and Robert J. Sampson

    Income, Poverty, and Material Hardship Among Older Americans 55

    Helen Levy

    How Well Does the “Safety Net” Work for Family Safety Nets? Economic Survival Strategies Among Grandmother Caregivers in Severe Deprivation 78

    LaShawnDa Pittman

    Part II. Extreme Poverty and Social Suffering

    How Institutions Deprive: Ethnography, Social Work, and Interventionist Ethics Among the...

    Contents

    Severe Deprivation in America: An Introduction

    Matthew Desmond

    Part I. Severe Deprivation Among the Young and Old

    Trends in Deep Poverty from 1968 to 2011: The Influence of Family Structure, Employment Patterns, and the Safety Net 14

    Liana Fox, Christopher Wimer, Irwin Garfinkel, Neeraj Kaushal, JaeHyun Nam, and Jane Waldfogel

    Compounded Deprivation in the Transition to Adulthood: The Intersection of Racial and Economic Inequality Among Chicagoans, 1995–2013 35

    Kristin L. Perkins and Robert J. Sampson

    Income, Poverty, and Material Hardship Among Older Americans 55

    Helen Levy

    How Well Does the “Safety Net” Work for Family Safety Nets? Economic Survival Strategies Among Grandmother Caregivers in Severe Deprivation 78

    LaShawnDa Pittman

    Part II. Extreme Poverty and Social Suffering

    How Institutions Deprive: Ethnography, Social Work, and Interventionist Ethics Among the Hypermarginalized 100

    Megan Comfort, Andrea M. Lopez, Christina Powers, Alex H. Kral, and Jennifer Lorvick

    Understanding the Dynamics of $2-a-Day Poverty in the United States 120

    H. Luke Shaefer, Kathryn Edin, and Elizabeth Talbert

    When There Is No Welfare: The Income Packaging Strategies of Mothers Without Earnings or Cash Assistance Following an Economic Downturn 139

    Kristin S. Seefeldt and Heather Sandstrom

      

  • Individual Author: Slack, Tim; Myers, Candice A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    This study examines the extent to which geographic variation in Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation is explained by place-based factors, with special attention to the case of the three poorest regions of the United States: Central Appalachia, the Texas Borderland, and the Lower Mississippi Delta. We use descriptive statistics and regression models to assess the prevalence and correlates of county-level FSP participation circa 2005. Our findings show that the economic distress that has long characterized Appalachia, the Borderland, and the Delta clearly translates into greater reliance on the FSP relative to other areas of the country. State-level effects and local-level variations in poverty, labor market conditions, population structure, human capital, and residential context explain much of this reality. Yet, even after taking all of these factors into account, these regional geographies remain home to particularly high FSP participation. Our findings underscore the importance of considering these regions as key cases of study in the stratification of American society and...

    This study examines the extent to which geographic variation in Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation is explained by place-based factors, with special attention to the case of the three poorest regions of the United States: Central Appalachia, the Texas Borderland, and the Lower Mississippi Delta. We use descriptive statistics and regression models to assess the prevalence and correlates of county-level FSP participation circa 2005. Our findings show that the economic distress that has long characterized Appalachia, the Borderland, and the Delta clearly translates into greater reliance on the FSP relative to other areas of the country. State-level effects and local-level variations in poverty, labor market conditions, population structure, human capital, and residential context explain much of this reality. Yet, even after taking all of these factors into account, these regional geographies remain home to particularly high FSP participation. Our findings underscore the importance of considering these regions as key cases of study in the stratification of American society and hold a variety of implications for public policy. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: McLellan, A. Thomas; Gutman, Marjorie; Lynch, Kevin; McKay, James R.; Ketterlinus, Robert; Morgenstern, Jon; Woolis, Diana
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multiservice intervention designed to move substance abusing women on welfare to sobriety and self-sufficiency by addressing their substance abuse, domestic violence, employment, and basic needs. Design: A field evaluation with repeated measures at 6 and 12 months on an intent-to-treat sample of 529 women conducted in 11 selected sites across the country. There were significant improvements shown in substance use and family and social functioning by the 6-month point, and additional improvements in employment by the 12-month point. By 12 months, more than 46% were abstinent from alcohol and other drugs, and 30% were employed at least part-time. There were only modest improvements shown in the medical and psychiatric status of these women. These preliminary findings suggest that site-level interagency coordination and program-level case management were associated with improvements in the targeted areas as predicted by the model. Future work will require a more closely specified, manual-guided form of the intervention plus the inclusion of control...

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multiservice intervention designed to move substance abusing women on welfare to sobriety and self-sufficiency by addressing their substance abuse, domestic violence, employment, and basic needs. Design: A field evaluation with repeated measures at 6 and 12 months on an intent-to-treat sample of 529 women conducted in 11 selected sites across the country. There were significant improvements shown in substance use and family and social functioning by the 6-month point, and additional improvements in employment by the 12-month point. By 12 months, more than 46% were abstinent from alcohol and other drugs, and 30% were employed at least part-time. There were only modest improvements shown in the medical and psychiatric status of these women. These preliminary findings suggest that site-level interagency coordination and program-level case management were associated with improvements in the targeted areas as predicted by the model. Future work will require a more closely specified, manual-guided form of the intervention plus the inclusion of control groups and cost measures to fully evaluate the cost benefits from the final form of the intervention. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Miller, Cynthia; Knox, Virginia
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Fathers provide important financial and emotional support to their children. Yet low-income noncustodial fathers, with low wages and high rates of joblessness, often do not fulfill their parenting roles. The child support system has not traditionally helped these men to do so, since its focus has been on securing financial support from fathers who can afford to pay. Meanwhile, fathers who cannot pay child support accumulate debts that can lead them to evade the system and its penalties altogether - and further limit their contact with their children.

    Parents' Fair Share (PFS) was designed as an alternative to standard enforcement. Launched in 1994 in seven sites, PFS was a national demonstration program that aimed to help low-income noncustodial fathers find more stable and better-paying jobs, pay child support on a consistent basis, and become more involved parents. Funded by the organizations listed at the front of this monograph, PFS provided employment and training services, peer support groups, voluntary mediation between parents, and...

    Fathers provide important financial and emotional support to their children. Yet low-income noncustodial fathers, with low wages and high rates of joblessness, often do not fulfill their parenting roles. The child support system has not traditionally helped these men to do so, since its focus has been on securing financial support from fathers who can afford to pay. Meanwhile, fathers who cannot pay child support accumulate debts that can lead them to evade the system and its penalties altogether - and further limit their contact with their children.

    Parents' Fair Share (PFS) was designed as an alternative to standard enforcement. Launched in 1994 in seven sites, PFS was a national demonstration program that aimed to help low-income noncustodial fathers find more stable and better-paying jobs, pay child support on a consistent basis, and become more involved parents. Funded by the organizations listed at the front of this monograph, PFS provided employment and training services, peer support groups, voluntary mediation between parents, and modified child support enforcement.

    Besides designing the PFS demonstration, MDRC evaluated it. Between 1994 and 1996, each of more than 5,500 fathers was randomly assigned to PFS or a control group, and the program's effects were estimated by comparing how the two groups fared over a two-year period. This monograph synthesizes the demonstration's key findings and uses them to formulate several recommendations for the next generation of fatherhood programs.

    Key Findings

    As a group, the fathers were very disadvantaged, although some were able to find low-wage work fairly easily. PFS increased employment and earnings for the least-employable men but not for the men who were more able to find work on their own. Most participated in job club services, but fewer than expected took part in skill-building activities.

    PFS encouraged some fathers, particularly those who were least involved initially, to take a more active parenting role. Many of the fathers visited their children regularly, although few had legal visitation agreements. There were modest increases in parental conflict over child-rearing decisions, and some mothers restricted the fathers' access to their children.

    Men referred to the PFS program paid more child support than men in the control group. The process of assessing eligibility uncovered a fair amount of employment, which disqualified some fathers from participation but which led, nonetheless, to increased child support payments. 

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Riccio, James A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Jobs-Plus Community Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing Families (Jobs-Plus, for short) grew out of The Rockefeller Foundation's interest in sponsoring community-building initiatives that feature employment as both the central goal and the driving force for transforming poor neighborhoods. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development joined The Rockefeller Foundation in its efforts, and MDRC agreed to manage Jobs-Plus and conduct a comprehensive evaluation of its implementation, costs, and effectiveness. The first in a series of documents that detail that evaluation, this report describes the main components of the program and outlines operations at the eight housing developments (in seven cities) that were selected as sites in March 1997. It also explores key aspects of Jobs-Plus, including the formation of agency and community organization partnerships around an employment agenda and the feasibility of providing services, incentives, and supports for work at saturation levels within a community. (author abstract)

    The Jobs-Plus Community Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing Families (Jobs-Plus, for short) grew out of The Rockefeller Foundation's interest in sponsoring community-building initiatives that feature employment as both the central goal and the driving force for transforming poor neighborhoods. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development joined The Rockefeller Foundation in its efforts, and MDRC agreed to manage Jobs-Plus and conduct a comprehensive evaluation of its implementation, costs, and effectiveness. The first in a series of documents that detail that evaluation, this report describes the main components of the program and outlines operations at the eight housing developments (in seven cities) that were selected as sites in March 1997. It also explores key aspects of Jobs-Plus, including the formation of agency and community organization partnerships around an employment agenda and the feasibility of providing services, incentives, and supports for work at saturation levels within a community. (author abstract)

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