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  • Individual Author: Hulsey, Lara; Leftin, Joshua; Gordon, Anne; Wulsin, Claire Smither; Redel, Nicholas; Schirm, Allen; Beyler, Nicholas; Heviside, Shella; Estes, Brian; Trippe, Carole
    Year: 2016

    The Direct Certification with Medicaid (DC-M) demonstration added Medicaid to the list of programs used to directly certify students for free school meals. The evaluation compared districts randomly assigned to either conduct DC-M or use normal certification procedures to examine whether DC-M leads to changes in the percentage of students certified, the number of meals served, Federal reimbursements, and certification costs incurred by districts. It also assessed State-level administrative costs and identified the challenges that states and districts faced when implementing DC-M. This report presents findings from the second year of the demonstration, school year 2013-2014.

    The impact findings for this study are internally valid estimates of the impact of DC-M for the participating evaluation districts in the participating states. However, this study was not intended to be nationally representative; study states and districts differ in important ways from states and districts nationally. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized more broadly and interpreted as the...

    The Direct Certification with Medicaid (DC-M) demonstration added Medicaid to the list of programs used to directly certify students for free school meals. The evaluation compared districts randomly assigned to either conduct DC-M or use normal certification procedures to examine whether DC-M leads to changes in the percentage of students certified, the number of meals served, Federal reimbursements, and certification costs incurred by districts. It also assessed State-level administrative costs and identified the challenges that states and districts faced when implementing DC-M. This report presents findings from the second year of the demonstration, school year 2013-2014.

    The impact findings for this study are internally valid estimates of the impact of DC-M for the participating evaluation districts in the participating states. However, this study was not intended to be nationally representative; study states and districts differ in important ways from states and districts nationally. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized more broadly and interpreted as the effects that would be anticipated from an expansion of DC-M to a broader (or otherwise different) set of states and districts.

    •  

    Key Findings:

    • In some demonstration states, DC-M positively affected certification outcomes and the percentage of meals served for free, but not the overall participation rate. In other words, for some states in the study sample, DC-M successfully reduced reliance on school meal applications and increased the proportion of students receiving free meals, although it did not affect the number of meals served overall. These increases resulted in additional Federal reimbursements in some states. However, there was no impact on district costs for certifying students. State DC-M administrative costs varied widely, but the per-student costs were low even in the highest cost states, and a large majority of the costs were start-up costs rather than ongoing costs. (author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Crouse, Gilbert; Waters, Annette
    Year: 2015

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The thirteenth report on Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors provides indicators and risk factors through 2011 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Use of welfare programs, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less reliant if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which families receive benefits from...

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The thirteenth report on Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors provides indicators and risk factors through 2011 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Use of welfare programs, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less reliant if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which families receive benefits from welfare programs might also be considered in assessing their degree of dependence. Although recognizing the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring dependence, a bipartisan Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators proposed that: A family is dependent on welfare if more than 50 percent of its total income in a one-year period comes from TANF (which replaced AFDC), SNAP (formerly food stamps) and/or SSI, and this welfare income is not associated with work activities. Given data limitations, we are not able to identify which program benefits may be associated with recipient work activities. Thus, the definition of welfare dependence used in this report may characterize more individuals as welfare dependant than the Board had intended. We follow the Board’s proposal as closely as possible by adopting the following definition of possible welfare dependence among individuals in families for use in this report: Welfare dependence is the proportion of all individuals in families that receive more than half of their total family income in one year from TANF, SNAP and/or SSI.

    This report uses data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and administrative data for the TANF (which replaced AFDC), SNAP (formerly Food Stamps) and SSI programs to provide updated measures through 2011 for several dependence indicators. Other measures are based on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and other data sources.  Based on these data, this report provides a number of key indicators of welfare recipiency, dependence and labor force attachment...

    The report also includes data on a larger set of traditional risk factors associated with welfare receipt.  They are organized into three categories:  economic security measures, measures related to employment and barriers to employment, and measures of nonmarital childbearing...

    Finally, the report has four appendices that provide additional data on major welfare programs, alternative measures of dependence and nonmarital births, as well as background information on several data and technical issues. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Crouse, Gilbert; Waters, Annette; Hauan, Susan; Macartney, Suzanne; Swenson, Kendall
    Year: 2015

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The 2015 report on Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors provides indicators and risk factors through 2012 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August, 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Use of welfare programs, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and duration.  Families may be more or less reliant if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs.  The amount of time over which families receive benefits from welfare...

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The 2015 report on Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors provides indicators and risk factors through 2012 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August, 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Use of welfare programs, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and duration.  Families may be more or less reliant if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs.  The amount of time over which families receive benefits from welfare programs might also be considered in assessing their degree of dependence.

    Although recognizing the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring dependence, a bipartisan Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators proposed that: a family is defined as dependent on welfare if more than 50 percent of its total income in a one-year period comes from TANF (which replaced AFDC), SNAP (formerly food stamps) and/or SSI, and this welfare income is not associated with work activities.

    Given data limitations, we are not able to identify which program benefits may be associated with recipient work activities.  Thus, the definition of welfare dependence used in this report may characterize more individuals as welfare dependent than the Board had intended.  We follow the Board’s proposal as closely as possible by adopting the following definition of possible welfare dependence among individuals in families for use in this report: welfare dependence is the proportion of all individuals in families that receive more than half of their total family income in one year from TANF, SNAP and/or SSI.

    The report provides a number of key indicators of welfare dependence, recipiency, and labor force attachment.  Also included is a broader set of risk factors associated with welfare receipt and potential dependence organized into three categories:  1) economic security measures, 2) measures related to employment and barriers to employment, and 3) measures of nonmarital childbearing.  The key economic security risk factors include and supplement measures of poverty and well-being and are useful to ensure that predictors of receipt are not assessed in isolation.  Measures related to employment and barriers to employment also may be useful since families must generally receive an adequate income from employment in order to avoid welfare programs without severe deprivation.  Trends in nonmarital births are provided since the lower family incomes of single-parent families affects the need for and use of welfare programs.  Historically a large percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients first became parents outside of marriage. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Chilton, Mariana; Coates, Spencer; Doar, Robert; Everett, Jeremy; Finn, Susan ; Frank, Deborah ; Jamason, Cherie ; Shore, Billy; Sykes, Russell
    Year: 2015

    To identify solutions to hunger, Congress created the bipartisan National Commission on Hunger “to provide policy recommendations to Congress and the USDA Secretary to more effectively use existing programs and funds of the Department of Agriculture to combat domestic hunger and food insecurity.”

    This report is based on the commission members’ full agreement that hunger cannot be solved by food alone, nor by government efforts alone. The solutions to hunger require a stronger economy, robust community engagement, corporate partnerships, and greater personal responsibility, as well as strong government programs. (Author executive summary)

    To identify solutions to hunger, Congress created the bipartisan National Commission on Hunger “to provide policy recommendations to Congress and the USDA Secretary to more effectively use existing programs and funds of the Department of Agriculture to combat domestic hunger and food insecurity.”

    This report is based on the commission members’ full agreement that hunger cannot be solved by food alone, nor by government efforts alone. The solutions to hunger require a stronger economy, robust community engagement, corporate partnerships, and greater personal responsibility, as well as strong government programs. (Author executive summary)

  • Individual Author: Crouse, Gilbert; Waters, Annette
    Year: 2014

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The twelfth Indicators of Welfare Dependence report provides welfare dependence indicators through 2009 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Welfare dependence, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less dependent if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which families depend on welfare might also be...

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The twelfth Indicators of Welfare Dependence report provides welfare dependence indicators through 2009 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Welfare dependence, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less dependent if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which families depend on welfare might also be considered in assessing their degree of dependence. Although recognizing the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring dependence, a bipartisan Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators proposed that: A family is dependent on welfare if more than 50 percent of its total income in a one-year period comes from TANF (formerly AFDC), SNAP (formerly food stamps) and/or SSI, and this welfare income is not associated with work activities. Given data limitations, we are not able to identify which program benefits may be associated with recipient work activities. Thus, the definition of welfare dependence used in this report may characterize more individuals as welfare dependent than the Board had intended. We follow the Board’s proposal as closely as possible by adopting the following definition of welfare dependence among individuals in families: Welfare dependence is the proportion of all individuals in families that receive more than half of their total family income in one year from TANF, SNAP and/or SSI. for use in this report:

    This report uses data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and administrative data for the TANF (formerly AFDC), SNAP (formerly Food Stamps) and SSI programs to provide updated measures through 2009 for several dependence indicators. Other measures are based on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and other data sources. Based on these data, this report provides a number of key indicators of welfare recipiency, dependence and labor force attachment...

    Since the causes of welfare receipt and dependence are not clearly known, the report also includes a larger set of traditional risk factors associated with welfare receipt. The risk factors are organized into three categories: economic security measures, measures related to employment and barriers to employment, and measures of nonmarital childbearing...

    The economic security risk factors include measures of poverty and well-being that are important not only as potential predictors of dependence, but also as a supplement to the dependence indicators, ensuring that dependence measures are not assessed in isolation. As such, the report includes data on the official poverty rate, one of the most common measures of economic well-being...

    The measures related to employment and barriers to employment are important because families must generally receive an adequate income from employment in order to avoid dependence without severe deprivation...

    Data on nonmarital births is important since historically a high proportion of AFDC/TANF recipients first became parents outside of marriage...

    Finally, the report has four appendices that provide additional data on major welfare programs, alternative measures of dependence and nonmarital births, as well as background information on several data and technical issues. (author abstract)

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