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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Child Trends
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    After reaching 23 percent in 1993—the highest rate since 1964—child poverty (the percentage of children in families with income below 100 percent of the federal poverty level) fell to 16 percent in 2000. The rate then rose slowly through 2004, to 18 percent. Soon after, the child poverty rate began to reflect the most recent economic downturn. From 2006 to 2010, child poverty increased from 17 to 22 percent of all children under age 18, before declining from 2010 to 2017, to 17 percent. A small uptick in 2014, to 21 percent, may be attributed to a change in income reporting. (Author introduction)

     

    After reaching 23 percent in 1993—the highest rate since 1964—child poverty (the percentage of children in families with income below 100 percent of the federal poverty level) fell to 16 percent in 2000. The rate then rose slowly through 2004, to 18 percent. Soon after, the child poverty rate began to reflect the most recent economic downturn. From 2006 to 2010, child poverty increased from 17 to 22 percent of all children under age 18, before declining from 2010 to 2017, to 17 percent. A small uptick in 2014, to 21 percent, may be attributed to a change in income reporting. (Author introduction)

     

  • Individual Author: Reeves, Richard V.; Krause, Eleanor
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    We argue in Part 1 of this paper that maternal depression is an under-acknowledged factor in the intergenerational transmission of poverty, and lack of economic mobility. Specifically, we show that:

    I. Poverty increases the risk of maternal depression;

    II. Maternal depression can weaken attachment;

    III. Weaker attachment can impair child development;

    IV. Slower development can damage child outcomes; and

    V. Worse child outcomes can increase the risk of future poverty.

    Since our focus here is on the role of the mental health of caregivers in the very early years, we spend more time on these particular links in the chain. The other links—for instance, between child and adult outcomes—are treated only briefly, with pointers to the broader literature. In Part 2 we draw out some policy approaches to breaking the cycle at each point. This is an area where a “two-generation” approach may pay dividends. Specifically, we suggest policies to:

    I. Reduce poverty;

    II. Reduce the impact of poverty on depression among caregivers;

    III...

    We argue in Part 1 of this paper that maternal depression is an under-acknowledged factor in the intergenerational transmission of poverty, and lack of economic mobility. Specifically, we show that:

    I. Poverty increases the risk of maternal depression;

    II. Maternal depression can weaken attachment;

    III. Weaker attachment can impair child development;

    IV. Slower development can damage child outcomes; and

    V. Worse child outcomes can increase the risk of future poverty.

    Since our focus here is on the role of the mental health of caregivers in the very early years, we spend more time on these particular links in the chain. The other links—for instance, between child and adult outcomes—are treated only briefly, with pointers to the broader literature. In Part 2 we draw out some policy approaches to breaking the cycle at each point. This is an area where a “two-generation” approach may pay dividends. Specifically, we suggest policies to:

    I. Reduce poverty;

    II. Reduce the impact of poverty on depression among caregivers;

    III. Reduce the impact of caregiver depression on early child development; and

    IV. Reduce the impact of weaker early child development on later outcomes.

    (Edited author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Tran, Victoria; Dwyer, Kelly; Minton, Sarah
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    If a single mother earns $25,000 per year, can she receive a subsidy to help pay for child care? What if she decides to attend a training program? If she does qualify for a subsidy, how much will she have to pay out of pocket? The answers to these questions depend on a family’s exact circumstances, including the ages of the children, the number of people in the family, income, and where they live. Child care subsidies are provided through a federal block grant program called the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF). CCDF provides funding to the States, Territories, and Tribes. They use the money to administer child care subsidy programs for low-income families. This brief provides a graphical overview of some of the CCDF policy differences across States/Territories. It includes information about eligibility requirements, family application and terms of authorization, family payments, and policies for providers. (Excerpt from author introduction)

    If a single mother earns $25,000 per year, can she receive a subsidy to help pay for child care? What if she decides to attend a training program? If she does qualify for a subsidy, how much will she have to pay out of pocket? The answers to these questions depend on a family’s exact circumstances, including the ages of the children, the number of people in the family, income, and where they live. Child care subsidies are provided through a federal block grant program called the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF). CCDF provides funding to the States, Territories, and Tribes. They use the money to administer child care subsidy programs for low-income families. This brief provides a graphical overview of some of the CCDF policy differences across States/Territories. It includes information about eligibility requirements, family application and terms of authorization, family payments, and policies for providers. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Maxwell, Kelly; Starr, Rebecca
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    Licensing is traditionally viewed as providing the foundation (or the floor) of quality in early care and education (ECE) settings. States and territories are responsible for licensing child care programs, and a license serves as permission to legally operate a child care program. The essential purpose of licensing is to provide basic protections to prevent harm to children. Initiatives like Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) often build on the basic requirements of licensing to define quality and support programs in achieving higher levels of quality. This conceptualization of licensing as a basic, first step toward quality has begun to change recently. Licensing is increasingly viewed as integral all along the quality continuum, not just as the floor of quality. Further, some ECE policymakers are considering how all aspects of the licensing system—from the standards to monitoring compliance to enforcement—can support the quality of ECE. Although the conceptual relationship between licensing and quality is evolving, there is little research about how licensing...

    Licensing is traditionally viewed as providing the foundation (or the floor) of quality in early care and education (ECE) settings. States and territories are responsible for licensing child care programs, and a license serves as permission to legally operate a child care program. The essential purpose of licensing is to provide basic protections to prevent harm to children. Initiatives like Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) often build on the basic requirements of licensing to define quality and support programs in achieving higher levels of quality. This conceptualization of licensing as a basic, first step toward quality has begun to change recently. Licensing is increasingly viewed as integral all along the quality continuum, not just as the floor of quality. Further, some ECE policymakers are considering how all aspects of the licensing system—from the standards to monitoring compliance to enforcement—can support the quality of ECE. Although the conceptual relationship between licensing and quality is evolving, there is little research about how licensing influences quality. This brief provides a framework to support discussion and research in this important area. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Forry, N.; Madill, R.; Shuey, E.; Halle, T; Ugarte, G; Borton, J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    These snapshots describe U.S. households’ costs for, and usage of, ECE in 2012, looking at differences by age of child, household income, and community urbanicity.

    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Child Age
    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Household Income
    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Community Urbanicity

    These snapshots use data from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE), a nationally representative study of U.S. households and early care and education providers conducted in 2012. (Author abstract)

     

    These snapshots describe U.S. households’ costs for, and usage of, ECE in 2012, looking at differences by age of child, household income, and community urbanicity.

    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Child Age
    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Household Income
    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Community Urbanicity

    These snapshots use data from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE), a nationally representative study of U.S. households and early care and education providers conducted in 2012. (Author abstract)

     

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