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  • Individual Author: Weber, Bruce A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Whitener, Leslie A.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2002

    This volume presents a comprehensive look at how welfare reforms enacted in 1996 are affecting caseloads, employment, earnings, and family well-being in rural areas. (author abstract)

    Contents

    Introduction: As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural America / Leslie A. Whitener, Bruce A. Weber, Greg Duncan

    1. Approaching the Limit: Early National Lessons from Welfare Reform / Sheldon Danziger
    2. Rural Labor Markets in an Era of Welfare Reform / Robert M. Gibbs
    3. Rural America in Transition: Poverty and Welfare at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century / Daniel T. Lichter, Leif Jensen
    4. Reducing Food Stamp and Welfare Caseloads in the South: Are Rural Areas Less Likely to Succeed than Urban Centers? / Mark Henry, Lynn Reinschmiedt, Willis Lewis, Darren Hudson
    5. Seasonal Employment Dynamics and Welfare Use in Agricultural and Rural California Counties / Henry E. Brady, Mary Sprague, Fredric C. Gey, Michael Wiseman
    6. Location and the Low-Income Experience: Analyses of Program Dynamics in the Iowa Family Investment Program...

    This volume presents a comprehensive look at how welfare reforms enacted in 1996 are affecting caseloads, employment, earnings, and family well-being in rural areas. (author abstract)

    Contents

    Introduction: As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural America / Leslie A. Whitener, Bruce A. Weber, Greg Duncan

    1. Approaching the Limit: Early National Lessons from Welfare Reform / Sheldon Danziger
    2. Rural Labor Markets in an Era of Welfare Reform / Robert M. Gibbs
    3. Rural America in Transition: Poverty and Welfare at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century / Daniel T. Lichter, Leif Jensen
    4. Reducing Food Stamp and Welfare Caseloads in the South: Are Rural Areas Less Likely to Succeed than Urban Centers? / Mark Henry, Lynn Reinschmiedt, Willis Lewis, Darren Hudson
    5. Seasonal Employment Dynamics and Welfare Use in Agricultural and Rural California Counties / Henry E. Brady, Mary Sprague, Fredric C. Gey, Michael Wiseman
    6. Location and the Low-Income Experience: Analyses of Program Dynamics in the Iowa Family Investment Program / Helen H. Jensen, Shao-Hsun Keng, Steven Garasky
    7. Small Towns and Welfare Reform: Iowa Case Studies of Families and Communities / Cynthia Needles Fletcher, Jan L. Flora, Barbara J. Gaddis, Mary Winter, Jacquelyn S. Litt
    8. Where all the Counties are above Average: Human Service Agency Directors' Perspectives on Welfare Reform / Ann Tickamyer, Julie White, Barry Tadlock, Debra Henderson
    9. The impact of Welfare Policy on the Employment of Single Mothers Living in Rural and Urban Areas / Signe-Mary McKernan, Robert Lerman, Nancy Pindus, Jesse Valente
    10. Welfare Reform in Rural Minnesota: Experimental Findings from the Minnesota Family Investment Program / Lisa A. Gennetian, Cindy Redcross, and Cynthia Miller
    11. Will Attainable Jobs be Available for TANF Recipients in Local Labor Markets? Evidence from Mississippi on Prospects for "Job-Skill Matching" of TANF Adults / Frank M. Howell
    12. Whose Job Is It? Employers' Views on Welfare Reform / Ellen Shelton, Greg Owen, Amy Bush Stevens, Justine Nelson-Christinedaughter, Corinna Roy, June Heineman
    13. The Short-Term Impacts of Welfare Reform in Persistently Poor Rural Areas / Mark Harvey, Gene F. Summers, Kathleen Pickering, Patricia Richards
    14. Food Stamps in Rural America: Special Issues and Common Themes / Sheena McConnell, James Ohls
    15. The Decline in Food Stamp Use by Rural Low-Income Households: Less Need or Less Access? / Mark Nord
    16. Lessons Learned: Welfare Reform and Food Assistance in Rural America / Greg Duncan, Leslie A. Whitener, Bruce A. Weber
  • Individual Author: Lein, Laura; Edin, Kathryn
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Welfare mothers are popularly viewed as passively dependent on their checks and averse to work. Reformers across the political spectrum advocate moving these women off the welfare rolls and into the labor force as the solution to their problems. Making Ends Meet offers dramatic evidence toward a different conclusion: In the present labor market, unskilled single mothers who hold jobs are frequently worse off than those on welfare, and neither welfare nor low-wage employment alone will support a family at subsistence levels. Kathryn Edin and Laura Lein interviewed nearly four hundred welfare and low-income single mothers from cities in Massachusetts, Texas, Illinois, and South Carolina over a six year period. They learned the reality of these mothers' struggles to provide for their families: where their money comes from, what they spend it on, how they cope with their children's needs, and what hardships they suffer. Edin and Lein's careful budgetary analyses reveal that even a full range of welfare benefits—AFDC payments, food stamps, Medicaid, and housing subsidies—typically...

    Welfare mothers are popularly viewed as passively dependent on their checks and averse to work. Reformers across the political spectrum advocate moving these women off the welfare rolls and into the labor force as the solution to their problems. Making Ends Meet offers dramatic evidence toward a different conclusion: In the present labor market, unskilled single mothers who hold jobs are frequently worse off than those on welfare, and neither welfare nor low-wage employment alone will support a family at subsistence levels. Kathryn Edin and Laura Lein interviewed nearly four hundred welfare and low-income single mothers from cities in Massachusetts, Texas, Illinois, and South Carolina over a six year period. They learned the reality of these mothers' struggles to provide for their families: where their money comes from, what they spend it on, how they cope with their children's needs, and what hardships they suffer. Edin and Lein's careful budgetary analyses reveal that even a full range of welfare benefits—AFDC payments, food stamps, Medicaid, and housing subsidies—typically meet only three-fifths of a family's needs, and that funds for adequate food, clothing and other necessities are often lacking. Leaving welfare for work offers little hope for improvement, and in many cases threatens even greater hardship. Jobs for unskilled and semi-skilled women provide meager salaries, irregular or uncertain hours, frequent layoffs, and no promise of advancement. Mothers who work not only assume extra child care, medical, and transportation expenses but are also deprived of many of the housing and educational subsidies available to those on welfare. Regardless of whether they are on welfare or employed, virtually all these single mothers need to supplement their income with menial, off-the-books work and intermittent contributions from family, live-in boyfriends, their children's fathers, and local charities. In doing so, they pay a heavy price. Welfare mothers must work covertly to avoid losing benefits, while working mothers are forced to sacrifice even more time with their children. (author abstract)