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  • Individual Author: Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Sommer, Teresa Eckrich; Sabol, Terri J.; King, Christopher T.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Chor, Elise
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    CAP Tulsa is at the forefront of two-generation education programming and research for low-income parents and their children. This anti-poverty community action agency in Tulsa, Oklahoma has been highly successful to date in helping parents advance educationally and attain workforce-applicable certification in the healthcare field while their young children are engaged in CAP Tulsa’s high-quality early education programs. These achievements are particularly noteworthy when compared with the lower success rates of other postsecondary education and workforce development programs that often focus on low-income adults, not parents. We recommend that CAP Tulsa remain a leader in the two-generation field. 
     
    In this report, which represents the progress made during Year 4 of the CAP Family Life Study, we use study data to suggest that the CareerAdvance® program, in its current form, is both serving a population of CAP Tulsa parents who are largely well-suited for the program (i.e. economically disadvantaged and psychologically healthy) and offering a package of supportive...

    CAP Tulsa is at the forefront of two-generation education programming and research for low-income parents and their children. This anti-poverty community action agency in Tulsa, Oklahoma has been highly successful to date in helping parents advance educationally and attain workforce-applicable certification in the healthcare field while their young children are engaged in CAP Tulsa’s high-quality early education programs. These achievements are particularly noteworthy when compared with the lower success rates of other postsecondary education and workforce development programs that often focus on low-income adults, not parents. We recommend that CAP Tulsa remain a leader in the two-generation field. 
     
    In this report, which represents the progress made during Year 4 of the CAP Family Life Study, we use study data to suggest that the CareerAdvance® program, in its current form, is both serving a population of CAP Tulsa parents who are largely well-suited for the program (i.e. economically disadvantaged and psychologically healthy) and offering a package of supportive services that seem to be well-matched to their needs and interests. The data are also suggestive of potential avenues for cutting program expenses and further strengthening program offerings. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Sommer, Teresa Eckrich; Sabol, Terri J.; King, Christopher T. ; Smith, Tara ; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    CareerAdvance®— administered by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa)— combines Head Start services with education and stackable training in the healthcare sector. The program draws on the best innovations from the adult education literature by offering a sequence of programs in partnership with community colleges so that participants can make concrete progress, exit at various points with certificates, and then return for further advancement. CareerAdvance® also provides a number of key supportive components, including career coaches, financial incentives, and peer group meetings, to prepare parents for high-demand jobs in the healthcare sector. CareerAdvance® is one of the only fully-operating, two-generation, human capital programs in the country.

    The CAP Family Life Study is a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, multi-level study of CareerAdvance®, in which we examine the short-term and longer-term effects of the program on family, parent, and child outcomes. The research team for the CAP Family Life Study includes P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Teresa...

    CareerAdvance®— administered by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa)— combines Head Start services with education and stackable training in the healthcare sector. The program draws on the best innovations from the adult education literature by offering a sequence of programs in partnership with community colleges so that participants can make concrete progress, exit at various points with certificates, and then return for further advancement. CareerAdvance® also provides a number of key supportive components, including career coaches, financial incentives, and peer group meetings, to prepare parents for high-demand jobs in the healthcare sector. CareerAdvance® is one of the only fully-operating, two-generation, human capital programs in the country.

    The CAP Family Life Study is a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, multi-level study of CareerAdvance®, in which we examine the short-term and longer-term effects of the program on family, parent, and child outcomes. The research team for the CAP Family Life Study includes P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Teresa Eckrich Sommer, and Terri Sabol from Northwestern University, Christopher King from the University of Texas at Austin, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn at Columbia University, and Hirokazu Yoshikawa at New York University. The current study investigates how variation in program participation is linked to different subgroup patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Sommer, Teresa Eckrich; Sabol, Terri J.; King, Christopher T.; Smith, Tara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    CareerAdvance®, launched by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP), is a healthcare workforce development program designed for low-income parents of young children enrolled in CAP’s early childhood education programs. The two-generation approach of CareerAdvance® is one of the only sectoral workforce development programs with the explicit goal of improving outcomes simultaneously for both parents and children. The present evaluation of CareerAdvance® represents a strong collaboration between university research partners and CAP. The research partnership began in 2008 when nationally-recognized leaders in workforce program and policy development worked with CAP to design CareerAdvance®, which was launched in 2009. In early 2010, national experts in developmental science broadened the research scope of the study to focus on children’s development and family functioning in addition to parents’ education, training, and financial well-being. (Excerpt from author introduction)

    CareerAdvance®, launched by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP), is a healthcare workforce development program designed for low-income parents of young children enrolled in CAP’s early childhood education programs. The two-generation approach of CareerAdvance® is one of the only sectoral workforce development programs with the explicit goal of improving outcomes simultaneously for both parents and children. The present evaluation of CareerAdvance® represents a strong collaboration between university research partners and CAP. The research partnership began in 2008 when nationally-recognized leaders in workforce program and policy development worked with CAP to design CareerAdvance®, which was launched in 2009. In early 2010, national experts in developmental science broadened the research scope of the study to focus on children’s development and family functioning in addition to parents’ education, training, and financial well-being. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Sommer, Teresa Eckrich; Sabol, Terri J.; King, Christopher T.; Glover, Robert W.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    CareerAdvance®, launched by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP), is a healthcare workforce development program designed for low-income parents of young children enrolled in CAP’s early childhood education programs. The dual-generation approach of CareerAdvance® is one of the only sectoral workforce development programs with the explicit goal of improving outcomes simultaneously for both parents and children. The present evaluation of CareerAdvance® represents a strong collaboration between university research partners and CAP. The research partnership began in 2008 when nationally-recognized leaders in workforce program and policy development worked with CAP to design CareerAdvance®, which was launched in 2009. In early 2010, national experts in developmental science broadened the research scope of the study to focus on children’s development and family functioning in addition to parents’ education, training, and financial well-being. (Excerpt from author introduction)

    CareerAdvance®, launched by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP), is a healthcare workforce development program designed for low-income parents of young children enrolled in CAP’s early childhood education programs. The dual-generation approach of CareerAdvance® is one of the only sectoral workforce development programs with the explicit goal of improving outcomes simultaneously for both parents and children. The present evaluation of CareerAdvance® represents a strong collaboration between university research partners and CAP. The research partnership began in 2008 when nationally-recognized leaders in workforce program and policy development worked with CAP to design CareerAdvance®, which was launched in 2009. In early 2010, national experts in developmental science broadened the research scope of the study to focus on children’s development and family functioning in addition to parents’ education, training, and financial well-being. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Hamilton, Gayle; Freedman, Stephen; McGroder, Sharon M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    Since its inception the primary goal of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, as well as successor programs funded under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), has been to provide government support for poor children. Over the years, this public assistance has become more and more predicated on custodial parents' involvement in work or mandatory welfare-to-work program activities, as policymakers have sought to balance the goal of fostering poor children's well-being with that of encouraging adults' self-sufficiency. Currently, there are strong incentives for states to run mandatory, work-focused welfare-to-work programs: States face financial penalties if they fail to meet TANF-defined participation standards, which require large proportions of welfare recipients to be working or in work-related activities, and states must require recipients to work after two years of assistance. In addition, federal funds now may not be used to support most families on welfare for longer than five years, and a number of states and localities have shorter welfare...

    Since its inception the primary goal of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, as well as successor programs funded under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), has been to provide government support for poor children. Over the years, this public assistance has become more and more predicated on custodial parents' involvement in work or mandatory welfare-to-work program activities, as policymakers have sought to balance the goal of fostering poor children's well-being with that of encouraging adults' self-sufficiency. Currently, there are strong incentives for states to run mandatory, work-focused welfare-to-work programs: States face financial penalties if they fail to meet TANF-defined participation standards, which require large proportions of welfare recipients to be working or in work-related activities, and states must require recipients to work after two years of assistance. In addition, federal funds now may not be used to support most families on welfare for longer than five years, and a number of states and localities have shorter welfare time limits.

    This document examines the effects of welfare-to-work programs on the children of the adults (almost all single mothers) mandated to participate in such programs. Synthesizing the results from two recently completed reports from a large-scale evaluation — the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS Evaluation) — the two-year effects of 11 welfare-to-work programs that operated in seven sites in the early to mid 1990s are summarized.(1) The sites included in the evaluation are Atlanta, Georgia; Columbus, Ohio; Detroit and Grand Rapids, Michigan; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Portland, Oregon; and Riverside, California. While the programs operated under the federal Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) program that preceded TANF, and thus did not invoke a time limit on eligibility for welfare, they shared TANF's primary goal of moving welfare recipients into paid work and off assistance, and they reflect a range of approaches, implementation features, and environments: Some were strongly employment-focused while others emphasized basic education; they varied in how broadly the program participation mandate was applied to the welfare caseload and how strictly it was enforced, in the amount of child care support provided for program participation or employment, and in methods of case management; and the programs served different welfare populations and operated in a variety of labor markets. Although the NEWWS evaluation was designed to address the effects on children of requiring parents to participate in welfare-to-work programs, there are many other policies — for example, child care and health insurance policies — that can affect children, and those policies can be examined only indirectly in this evaluation.

    To determine program effects on children, the NEWWS Evaluation uses a very strong research design: a random assignment experiment. In each evaluation site, adults who were required to participate in the program were assigned, by chance, either to a program group that had access to employment and training services and whose members were required to participate in the program or risk a reduction in their monthly welfare grant or to a control group that received no services through the program but could seek out such services from the community(2). (Control group members were eligible for child care assistance, similar to that offered to program group members, if they were participating in nonprogram activities in which they had enrolled on their own.) Notably, in four of the sites, there were two program groups (plus a control group). In three of the sites, one program group was employment-focused while the other program group was education-focused; in the fourth site, the two program groups varied in their case management staffing structure. This random assignment design assures that, within each site, there were no systematic differences between the background characteristics of families in the program and control groups when they entered the study. Thus, any subsequent differences in outcomes between the groups — for adults, children, or families as a whole — can be attributed with confidence to the effects of the programs. These differences between outcomes are called impacts, and all those reported are statistically significant and hold for the whole sample unless otherwise noted. (author abstract)

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