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  • Individual Author: Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Sommer, Teresa Eckrich; Sabol, Terri J.; King, Christopher T.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Chor, Elise
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    CAP Tulsa is at the forefront of two-generation education programming and research for low-income parents and their children. This anti-poverty community action agency in Tulsa, Oklahoma has been highly successful to date in helping parents advance educationally and attain workforce-applicable certification in the healthcare field while their young children are engaged in CAP Tulsa’s high-quality early education programs. These achievements are particularly noteworthy when compared with the lower success rates of other postsecondary education and workforce development programs that often focus on low-income adults, not parents. We recommend that CAP Tulsa remain a leader in the two-generation field. 
     
    In this report, which represents the progress made during Year 4 of the CAP Family Life Study, we use study data to suggest that the CareerAdvance® program, in its current form, is both serving a population of CAP Tulsa parents who are largely well-suited for the program (i.e. economically disadvantaged and psychologically healthy) and offering a package of supportive...

    CAP Tulsa is at the forefront of two-generation education programming and research for low-income parents and their children. This anti-poverty community action agency in Tulsa, Oklahoma has been highly successful to date in helping parents advance educationally and attain workforce-applicable certification in the healthcare field while their young children are engaged in CAP Tulsa’s high-quality early education programs. These achievements are particularly noteworthy when compared with the lower success rates of other postsecondary education and workforce development programs that often focus on low-income adults, not parents. We recommend that CAP Tulsa remain a leader in the two-generation field. 
     
    In this report, which represents the progress made during Year 4 of the CAP Family Life Study, we use study data to suggest that the CareerAdvance® program, in its current form, is both serving a population of CAP Tulsa parents who are largely well-suited for the program (i.e. economically disadvantaged and psychologically healthy) and offering a package of supportive services that seem to be well-matched to their needs and interests. The data are also suggestive of potential avenues for cutting program expenses and further strengthening program offerings. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Sommer, Teresa Eckrich; Sabol, Terri J.; King, Christopher T. ; Smith, Tara ; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    CareerAdvance®— administered by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa)— combines Head Start services with education and stackable training in the healthcare sector. The program draws on the best innovations from the adult education literature by offering a sequence of programs in partnership with community colleges so that participants can make concrete progress, exit at various points with certificates, and then return for further advancement. CareerAdvance® also provides a number of key supportive components, including career coaches, financial incentives, and peer group meetings, to prepare parents for high-demand jobs in the healthcare sector. CareerAdvance® is one of the only fully-operating, two-generation, human capital programs in the country.

    The CAP Family Life Study is a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, multi-level study of CareerAdvance®, in which we examine the short-term and longer-term effects of the program on family, parent, and child outcomes. The research team for the CAP Family Life Study includes P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Teresa...

    CareerAdvance®— administered by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa)— combines Head Start services with education and stackable training in the healthcare sector. The program draws on the best innovations from the adult education literature by offering a sequence of programs in partnership with community colleges so that participants can make concrete progress, exit at various points with certificates, and then return for further advancement. CareerAdvance® also provides a number of key supportive components, including career coaches, financial incentives, and peer group meetings, to prepare parents for high-demand jobs in the healthcare sector. CareerAdvance® is one of the only fully-operating, two-generation, human capital programs in the country.

    The CAP Family Life Study is a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods, multi-level study of CareerAdvance®, in which we examine the short-term and longer-term effects of the program on family, parent, and child outcomes. The research team for the CAP Family Life Study includes P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Teresa Eckrich Sommer, and Terri Sabol from Northwestern University, Christopher King from the University of Texas at Austin, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn at Columbia University, and Hirokazu Yoshikawa at New York University. The current study investigates how variation in program participation is linked to different subgroup patterns of educational attainment, employment, and family health and well-being. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Sparks, Anne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    Through the Oklahoma Marriage Initiative and Oklahoma’s Department of Human Services, a relationship education program called Within My Reach is included in a week of orientation activities for new TANF (public assistance) clients. An implementation study was conducted with the aims: 1) of providing an in-depth description of the program based on the researcher’s observations; 2) of assessing, through in-depth interviews, the fit between the curriculum and the TANF clients’ actual relationship situations and concerns; and 3) of assessing, through repeated interviews, the degree to which participants utilize skills taught in the program. The researcher observed Within My Reach classes in three Department of Human Services centers in the greater Oklahoma City area and interviewed twenty-two TANF clients who participated in the Within My Reach program. Analysis of interviews and field notes from observation of classes found that a good fit existed between topics covered in the curriculum and the TANF clients’ actual relationship situations and concerns. Analysis of post-completion...

    Through the Oklahoma Marriage Initiative and Oklahoma’s Department of Human Services, a relationship education program called Within My Reach is included in a week of orientation activities for new TANF (public assistance) clients. An implementation study was conducted with the aims: 1) of providing an in-depth description of the program based on the researcher’s observations; 2) of assessing, through in-depth interviews, the fit between the curriculum and the TANF clients’ actual relationship situations and concerns; and 3) of assessing, through repeated interviews, the degree to which participants utilize skills taught in the program. The researcher observed Within My Reach classes in three Department of Human Services centers in the greater Oklahoma City area and interviewed twenty-two TANF clients who participated in the Within My Reach program. Analysis of interviews and field notes from observation of classes found that a good fit existed between topics covered in the curriculum and the TANF clients’ actual relationship situations and concerns. Analysis of post-completion interviews with eleven participants revealed that all eleven found at least one concept in the program valuable; nine of the eleven described one or more ways in which they had utilized awareness or skill they had gained from the program. The findings suggest that Within My Reach successfully modifies and adapts core elements of PREP (an effective relationship education program for middle class engaged and married couples) in order to address issues experienced by low income single parents. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Brocksen, Sally M.
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2006

    This project employed a descriptive case study methodology guided by rational choice theory to examine the financial feasibility of marriage for low income women. By modeling the income and expenses of eight different low income family types in six states (Arizona, California, New York, Oklahoma, Virginia, and Wisconsin) this study illustrates the financial situation of various low income families. The family types under investigation include: a single parent family, a family receiving TANF, cohabiting couple with two wage earners, cohabiting couple with one wage earner, a married family with two wage earners, a married couple with one wage earner, a unmarried couple with an infant (unmarried fragile family), and a married couple with an infant (married fragile family). The income of each family type was calculated at two different wage levels (minimum and low wage for each state under investigation). Income included the welfare benefits and subsidies each of the family's is likely to receive (including child care subsidies and tax credits). The expenses of each family were...

    This project employed a descriptive case study methodology guided by rational choice theory to examine the financial feasibility of marriage for low income women. By modeling the income and expenses of eight different low income family types in six states (Arizona, California, New York, Oklahoma, Virginia, and Wisconsin) this study illustrates the financial situation of various low income families. The family types under investigation include: a single parent family, a family receiving TANF, cohabiting couple with two wage earners, cohabiting couple with one wage earner, a married family with two wage earners, a married couple with one wage earner, a unmarried couple with an infant (unmarried fragile family), and a married couple with an infant (married fragile family). The income of each family type was calculated at two different wage levels (minimum and low wage for each state under investigation). Income included the welfare benefits and subsidies each of the family's is likely to receive (including child care subsidies and tax credits). The expenses of each family were calculated based on the size of the family and the cost of expenses such as housing and food expenditures. This study found that of the models presented here married families are not always financially better off when compared to single parent and cohabiting families. These findings demonstrate that if policy makers wish to support marriage among low income families they should first make marriage financially feasible for unmarried couples (particularly cohabiting couples) and create greater economic stability for couples that are already married. By providing consistent work supports (e.g. child care and health insurance), expanding programs that help low income families (such as the Earned Income Tax Credit), creating poverty measures that accurately reflect the real situation of low income families, and increasing the wages of low income workers, policy makers will create an environment where it is financially feasible for low income couples to marry and remain married. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hamilton, Gayle
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2002

    Over the past three decades, federal and state policymakers have created a variety of programs with the common goal of moving people from welfare to work.  How to go about increasing employment among welfare recipients, however, has long been debated.  By laying out the lessons learned from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) — the most ambitious welfare employment study to date — this research synthesis provides answers to critical questions in the welfare-to-work policy discussion.

    NEWWS examined the long-term effects on welfare recipients and their children of 11 mandatory welfare-to-work programs, operated in seven sites, that took different approaches to helping welfare recipients find jobs, advance in the labor market, and leave public assistance.  A central question of the evaluation was:  “What program strategies work best, and for whom?”  Under study were two primary preemployment approaches — one that emphasized short-term job search assistance and encouraged people to find jobs quickly and one that emphasized longer-term skill-building...

    Over the past three decades, federal and state policymakers have created a variety of programs with the common goal of moving people from welfare to work.  How to go about increasing employment among welfare recipients, however, has long been debated.  By laying out the lessons learned from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) — the most ambitious welfare employment study to date — this research synthesis provides answers to critical questions in the welfare-to-work policy discussion.

    NEWWS examined the long-term effects on welfare recipients and their children of 11 mandatory welfare-to-work programs, operated in seven sites, that took different approaches to helping welfare recipients find jobs, advance in the labor market, and leave public assistance.  A central question of the evaluation was:  “What program strategies work best, and for whom?”  Under study were two primary preemployment approaches — one that emphasized short-term job search assistance and encouraged people to find jobs quickly and one that emphasized longer-term skill-building activities (primarily basic education) before entering the labor market — and a third approach that mixed elements of the other two.  The strategies’ success was measured with respect to the goals and combinations of goals that policymakers and program operators have set for welfare-to-work programs, which include cutting the welfare rolls, increasing employment, reducing poverty, not worsening (or, better still, improving) the well-being of children, and saving government money.  The study examined the programs’ effects on single-parent welfare recipients, who account for the vast majority of the national welfare caseload, as well as on different subgroups thereof for example, those considered to be most disadvantaged with respect to their likelihood of finding steady employment.  The evaluation also addressed important policy questions such as how to engage a substantial proportion of people in program activities and how enforcement of welfare-to-work participation mandates influences program effectiveness.  A complete list of the questions covered in this synthesis, along with the primary sources from NEWWS that address them in detail, is provided in Table 1.The effects of the NEWWS programs were estimated based on a wealth of data on more than 40,000 single-parent families, making NEWWS the largest study of welfare-to-work programs ever conducted.  Parents and their children were tracked over a five-year follow-up period, which, depending on the site, spanned different parts of the 1990s.  In the study’s innovative and rigorous research design, each parent was randomly assigned to a program group (in some sites, there were two program groups), whose members were eligible for program services and subject to the mandate, or a control group, whose members were not. (author abstract)

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