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  • Individual Author: Desmond, Matthew (Editor)
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2015

    Contents

    Severe Deprivation in America: An Introduction

    Matthew Desmond

    Part I. Severe Deprivation Among the Young and Old

    Trends in Deep Poverty from 1968 to 2011: The Influence of Family Structure, Employment Patterns, and the Safety Net 14

    Liana Fox, Christopher Wimer, Irwin Garfinkel, Neeraj Kaushal, JaeHyun Nam, and Jane Waldfogel

    Compounded Deprivation in the Transition to Adulthood: The Intersection of Racial and Economic Inequality Among Chicagoans, 1995–2013 35

    Kristin L. Perkins and Robert J. Sampson

    Income, Poverty, and Material Hardship Among Older Americans 55

    Helen Levy

    How Well Does the “Safety Net” Work for Family Safety Nets? Economic Survival Strategies Among Grandmother Caregivers in Severe Deprivation 78

    LaShawnDa Pittman

    Part II. Extreme Poverty and Social Suffering

    How Institutions Deprive: Ethnography, Social Work, and Interventionist Ethics Among the...

    Contents

    Severe Deprivation in America: An Introduction

    Matthew Desmond

    Part I. Severe Deprivation Among the Young and Old

    Trends in Deep Poverty from 1968 to 2011: The Influence of Family Structure, Employment Patterns, and the Safety Net 14

    Liana Fox, Christopher Wimer, Irwin Garfinkel, Neeraj Kaushal, JaeHyun Nam, and Jane Waldfogel

    Compounded Deprivation in the Transition to Adulthood: The Intersection of Racial and Economic Inequality Among Chicagoans, 1995–2013 35

    Kristin L. Perkins and Robert J. Sampson

    Income, Poverty, and Material Hardship Among Older Americans 55

    Helen Levy

    How Well Does the “Safety Net” Work for Family Safety Nets? Economic Survival Strategies Among Grandmother Caregivers in Severe Deprivation 78

    LaShawnDa Pittman

    Part II. Extreme Poverty and Social Suffering

    How Institutions Deprive: Ethnography, Social Work, and Interventionist Ethics Among the Hypermarginalized 100

    Megan Comfort, Andrea M. Lopez, Christina Powers, Alex H. Kral, and Jennifer Lorvick

    Understanding the Dynamics of $2-a-Day Poverty in the United States 120

    H. Luke Shaefer, Kathryn Edin, and Elizabeth Talbert

    When There Is No Welfare: The Income Packaging Strategies of Mothers Without Earnings or Cash Assistance Following an Economic Downturn 139

    Kristin S. Seefeldt and Heather Sandstrom

      

  • Individual Author: Briggs, Xavier de Souza ; Goering, John M.; Popkin, Susan J.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2010

    Moving to Opportunity tackles one of America's most enduring dilemmas: the great, unresolved question of how to overcome persistent ghetto poverty. Launched in 1994, the MTO program took a largely untested approach: helping families move from high-poverty, inner-city public housing to low-poverty neighborhoods, some in the suburbs. The book's innovative methodology emphasizes the voices and choices of the program's participants but also rigorously analyzes the changing structures of regional opportunity and constraint that shaped the fortunes of those who "signed up." It shines a light on the hopes, surprises, achievements, and limitations of a major social experiment. As the authors make clear, for all its ambition, MTO is a uniquely American experiment, and this book brings home its powerful lessons for policymakers and advocates, scholars, students, journalists, and all who share a deep concern for opportunity and inequality in our country. (author abstract)

    Moving to Opportunity tackles one of America's most enduring dilemmas: the great, unresolved question of how to overcome persistent ghetto poverty. Launched in 1994, the MTO program took a largely untested approach: helping families move from high-poverty, inner-city public housing to low-poverty neighborhoods, some in the suburbs. The book's innovative methodology emphasizes the voices and choices of the program's participants but also rigorously analyzes the changing structures of regional opportunity and constraint that shaped the fortunes of those who "signed up." It shines a light on the hopes, surprises, achievements, and limitations of a major social experiment. As the authors make clear, for all its ambition, MTO is a uniquely American experiment, and this book brings home its powerful lessons for policymakers and advocates, scholars, students, journalists, and all who share a deep concern for opportunity and inequality in our country. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bushway, Shawn; Stoll, Michael A.; Weiman, David F.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2007

    With the introduction of more aggressive policing, prosecution, and sentencing since the late 1970s, the number of Americans in prison has increased dramatically. While many have credited these “get tough” policies with lowering violent crime rates, we are only just beginning to understand the broader costs of mass incarceration. In Barriers to Reentry? experts on labor markets and the criminal justice system investigate how imprisonment affects ex-offenders’ employment prospects, and how the challenge of finding work after prison affects the likelihood that they will break the law again and return to prison.

    The authors examine the intersection of imprisonment and employment from many vantage points, including employer surveys, interviews with former prisoners, and state data on prison employment programs and post-incarceration employment rates. Ex-prisoners face many obstacles to re-entering the job market—from employers’ fears of negligent hiring lawsuits to the lost opportunities for acquiring work experience while incarcerated. In a study of former prisoners,...

    With the introduction of more aggressive policing, prosecution, and sentencing since the late 1970s, the number of Americans in prison has increased dramatically. While many have credited these “get tough” policies with lowering violent crime rates, we are only just beginning to understand the broader costs of mass incarceration. In Barriers to Reentry? experts on labor markets and the criminal justice system investigate how imprisonment affects ex-offenders’ employment prospects, and how the challenge of finding work after prison affects the likelihood that they will break the law again and return to prison.

    The authors examine the intersection of imprisonment and employment from many vantage points, including employer surveys, interviews with former prisoners, and state data on prison employment programs and post-incarceration employment rates. Ex-prisoners face many obstacles to re-entering the job market—from employers’ fears of negligent hiring lawsuits to the lost opportunities for acquiring work experience while incarcerated. In a study of former prisoners, Becky Pettit and Christopher Lyons find that employment among this group was actually higher immediately after their release than before they were incarcerated, but that over time their employment rate dropped to their pre-imprisonment levels. Exploring the demand side of the equation, Harry Holzer, Steven Raphael, and Michael Stoll report on their survey of employers in Los Angeles about the hiring of former criminals, in which they find strong evidence of pervasive hiring discrimination against ex-prisoners. Devah Pager finds similar evidence of employer discrimination in an experiment in which Milwaukee employers were presented with applications for otherwise comparable jobseekers, some of whom had criminal records and some of whom did not. Such findings are particularly troubling in light of research by Steven Raphael and David Weiman which shows that ex-criminals are more likely to violate parole if they are unemployed. In a concluding chapter, Bruce Western warns that prison is becoming the norm for too many inner-city minority males; by preventing access to the labor market, mass incarceration is exacerbating inequality. Western argues that, ultimately, the most successful policies are those that keep young men out of prison in the first place.

    Promoting social justice and reducing recidivism both demand greater efforts to reintegrate former prisoners into the workforce. Barriers to Reentry? cogently underscores one of the major social costs of incarceration, and builds a compelling case for rethinking the way our country rehabilitates criminals.

    (author abstract)

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 Introduction Shawn Bushway, Michael A. Stoll, and David F. Weiman

    Part I Macro and Micro Contexts of Prisoner Reentry
    Chapter 2 The Regime of Mass Incarceration: A Labor-Market Perspective David F. Weiman, Michael A. Stoll, and Shawn Bushway
    Chapter 3 Finding Work on the Outside: Results from the “Returning Home” Project in Chicago Christy A. Visher and Vera Kachnowski

    Part II The Demand Side of the Labor Market
    Chapter 4 The Effect of an Applicant’s Criminal History on Employer Hiring Decisions and Screening Practices: Evidence from Los Angeles Harry J. Holzer, Steven Raphael, and Michael A. Stoll
    Chapter 5 Two Strikes and You’re Out: The Intensification of Racial and Criminal Stigma Devah Pager
    Chapter 6 Private Providers of Criminal History Records: Do You Get What You Pay For? Shawn Bushway, Shauna Briggs, Faye Taxman, Meridith Thanner, and Mischelle Van Brakle

    Part III From Prison to the Labor Market and Back?
    Chapter 7 Status and the Stigma of Incarceration: The Labor-Market Effects of Incarceration, by Race, Class, and Criminal Involvement Becky Pettit and Christopher J. Lyons
    Chapter 8 Prison-Based Education and Reentry into the Mainstream Labor Market John H. Tyler and Jeffrey R. Kling
    Chapter 9 Local Labor-Market Conditions and Post-Prison Employment Experiences of Offenders Released from Ohio State Prisons William J. Sabol
    Chapter 10 The Impact of Local Labor-Market Conditions on the Likelihood that Parolees Are Returned to Custody Steven Raphael and David F. Weiman

    Part IV Does Prison Work?
    Chapter 11 The Penal System and the Labor Market Bruce Western

  • Individual Author: Milkman, Ruth
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2006

    Recent developments in southern California—often a harbinger of national trends—suggest that reports of organized labor’s demise may be exaggerated. In Los Angeles, where inequality by both class and nativity is so stark that the city is routinely compared to the Third World, the dynamics that generated the janitors’ 1990 victory sparked a decade-long resurgence of union organizing and community-based economic justice campaigns—highlighting the possibility that labor might become an agent of social transformation once again. Whether or not that possibility is realized will have major implications for the wider society. Today, at both the local and national levels, the labor movement is the one organized entity that regularly and systematically challenges the rapidly growing inequality between rich and poor, as well as that between native- and foreign-born workers. The ebb and flow of unionism over the past century has been a key determinant of the life chances of working people in the United States, for immigrants and natives alike. (author introduction)

    Recent developments in southern California—often a harbinger of national trends—suggest that reports of organized labor’s demise may be exaggerated. In Los Angeles, where inequality by both class and nativity is so stark that the city is routinely compared to the Third World, the dynamics that generated the janitors’ 1990 victory sparked a decade-long resurgence of union organizing and community-based economic justice campaigns—highlighting the possibility that labor might become an agent of social transformation once again. Whether or not that possibility is realized will have major implications for the wider society. Today, at both the local and national levels, the labor movement is the one organized entity that regularly and systematically challenges the rapidly growing inequality between rich and poor, as well as that between native- and foreign-born workers. The ebb and flow of unionism over the past century has been a key determinant of the life chances of working people in the United States, for immigrants and natives alike. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Charles, Zubrinsky Camille
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2006

    Los Angeles is a city of delicate racial and ethnic balance. As evidenced by the 1965 Watts violence, the 1992 Rodney King riots, and this year’s award-winning film Crash, the city’s myriad racial groups coexist uneasily together, often on the brink of confrontation. In fact, Los Angeles is highly segregated, with racial and ethnic groups clustered in homogeneous neighborhoods. These residential groupings have profound effects on the economic well-being and quality of life of residents, dictating which jobs they can access, which social networks they can tap in to, and which schools they attend. In Won’t You Be My Neighbor?, sociologist Camille Zubrinsky Charles explores how modern racial attitudes shape and are shaped by the places in which people live.

    Using in-depth survey data and information from focus groups with members of L.A.’s largest racial and ethnic groups, Won’t You Be My Neighbor? explores why Los Angeles remains a segregated city. Charles finds that people of all backgrounds prefer both racial integration and a critical mass of same-race neighbors. When...

    Los Angeles is a city of delicate racial and ethnic balance. As evidenced by the 1965 Watts violence, the 1992 Rodney King riots, and this year’s award-winning film Crash, the city’s myriad racial groups coexist uneasily together, often on the brink of confrontation. In fact, Los Angeles is highly segregated, with racial and ethnic groups clustered in homogeneous neighborhoods. These residential groupings have profound effects on the economic well-being and quality of life of residents, dictating which jobs they can access, which social networks they can tap in to, and which schools they attend. In Won’t You Be My Neighbor?, sociologist Camille Zubrinsky Charles explores how modern racial attitudes shape and are shaped by the places in which people live.

    Using in-depth survey data and information from focus groups with members of L.A.’s largest racial and ethnic groups, Won’t You Be My Neighbor? explores why Los Angeles remains a segregated city. Charles finds that people of all backgrounds prefer both racial integration and a critical mass of same-race neighbors. When asked to reveal their preferred level of racial integration, people of all races show a clear and consistent order of preference, with whites considered the most highly desired neighbors and blacks the least desirable. This is even true among recent immigrants who have little experience with American race relations. Charles finds that these preferences, which are driven primarily by racial prejudice and minority-group fears of white hostility, taken together with financial considerations, strongly affect people’s decisions about where they live. Still, Charles offers reasons for optimism: over time and with increased exposure to other racial and ethnic groups, people show an increased willingness to live with neighbors of other races.

    In a racially and ethnically diverse city, segregated neighborhoods can foster distrust, reinforce stereotypes, and agitate inter-group tensions. Won’t You Be My Neighbor? zeroes in on segregated neighborhoods to provide a compelling examination of the way contemporary racial attitudes shape, and are shaped by, the places where we live. (author abstract)

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