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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Maiden, Rodney
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2014

    Vocational guidance and career counseling is the primary service provided to all applicants applying for vocational rehabilitation services. Vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors specialize in helping people with a disability acquire employment. Yet, when the person has a disability and a criminal record this adds an additional element for consideration. The object of this research is Louisiana vocational rehabilitation counselors in the Baton Rouge Regional Office (BRRO) and their vocational guidance and career counseling skills of people with a disability and a criminal record. For vocational rehabilitation counselors are required to apply theoretically-based career counseling practices in the provision of vocational guidance and career counseling. The expected outcome is the agreement of an employment goal between both the person with a disability and a criminal record and the VR counselor. The purpose of this qualitative research study is to explore the perceptions and actual experiences of vocational rehabilitation counselors in their usage of career theories when...

    Vocational guidance and career counseling is the primary service provided to all applicants applying for vocational rehabilitation services. Vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors specialize in helping people with a disability acquire employment. Yet, when the person has a disability and a criminal record this adds an additional element for consideration. The object of this research is Louisiana vocational rehabilitation counselors in the Baton Rouge Regional Office (BRRO) and their vocational guidance and career counseling skills of people with a disability and a criminal record. For vocational rehabilitation counselors are required to apply theoretically-based career counseling practices in the provision of vocational guidance and career counseling. The expected outcome is the agreement of an employment goal between both the person with a disability and a criminal record and the VR counselor. The purpose of this qualitative research study is to explore the perceptions and actual experiences of vocational rehabilitation counselors in their usage of career theories when providing vocational guidance and career counseling to with people with a disability and a criminal record.

    Given the scarce amount of research on career counseling of people with a disability and a criminal record, anecdotal information from BRRO vocational rehabilitation counselors, and the researcher's experience working as a VR counselor, the researcher used the heuristic qualitative design to explore these perceptions and actual experiences. The nature of heuristics incorporates the researcher's work experience as a vocational rehabilitation counselor. Therefore, through review of literature and face to face interviews, the efficacy of the career theories is explored along with successes and challenges faced by Louisiana rehabilitation counselors in helping clients select an appropriate employment goal.

    From the individual case studies, the themes of expectations, autonomy, counselor development, and fidelity to theories emerged from the data analysis. Eventually, the core category of incongruence in theory and practice emerged from the themes. The final chapter provides a discussion of the findings through the heuristic lens of the researcher. Additionally, implications for VR counselors, educators, and supervisors, future recommendations for research, and closing summary are provided. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Kauff, Jacqueline
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    This report represents the first step in the process of identifying initiatives intended to assist TANF recipients living with disabilities to obtain and maintain employment that may be worthy of further study. The outcomes and impacts of such initiatives are of substantial interest to program administrators and policymakers for several reasons. First and foremost is the concern over the well-being of these recipients and their families. Second, these initiatives often require considerable staff effort and intensive services and, therefore, can be costly to implement. Third, states and localities are under growing pressure to meet increased federally mandated work participation rates and recipients living with disabilities are one of many groups that program administrators and policymakers may consider targeting to increase those rates. To assist program administrators and policymakers in deciding how they should spend limited resources, it is critical to know whether the initiatives are, indeed, producing their desired effects. The time may be ripe for rigorously testing the...

    This report represents the first step in the process of identifying initiatives intended to assist TANF recipients living with disabilities to obtain and maintain employment that may be worthy of further study. The outcomes and impacts of such initiatives are of substantial interest to program administrators and policymakers for several reasons. First and foremost is the concern over the well-being of these recipients and their families. Second, these initiatives often require considerable staff effort and intensive services and, therefore, can be costly to implement. Third, states and localities are under growing pressure to meet increased federally mandated work participation rates and recipients living with disabilities are one of many groups that program administrators and policymakers may consider targeting to increase those rates. To assist program administrators and policymakers in deciding how they should spend limited resources, it is critical to know whether the initiatives are, indeed, producing their desired effects. The time may be ripe for rigorously testing the impact of employment initiatives for low-income families living with disabilities and this report presents some potential options for doing so. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Locke, Gretchen; Nolden, Sandra; Michlin, Naomi; Winkel, Kristin; Elwood, Paul
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    This research addresses the issues facing non-elderly people with disabilities as they seek affordable housing in their communities. The primary focus of this exploratory research is the influence of provisions of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 that permitted owners of certain HUD-assisted elderly housing (which may have previously served non-elderly people with disabilities) to limit admissions to elderly households. This report presents case studies of ten purposively selected metropolitan areas and a cross-site analysis assessing the issues facing low-income, non-elderly people with disabilities who are seeking affordable housing. (author abstract)

    This research addresses the issues facing non-elderly people with disabilities as they seek affordable housing in their communities. The primary focus of this exploratory research is the influence of provisions of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 that permitted owners of certain HUD-assisted elderly housing (which may have previously served non-elderly people with disabilities) to limit admissions to elderly households. This report presents case studies of ten purposively selected metropolitan areas and a cross-site analysis assessing the issues facing low-income, non-elderly people with disabilities who are seeking affordable housing. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Storen, Duke; Dixon, K.A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    On August 22, 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, known as the federal welfare reform bill or PRWORA, was signed by President Clinton. This legislation created the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program to replace the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and JOBS programs. Unlike the previous open-ended federal financial participation system, TANF is funded through a block grant. The new TANF program advocates a “work first” philosophy to public assistance, placing a time limit on benefits and requiring that TANF recipients engage in work or work-related activities to participate in the program. Under federal law, TANF-funded assistance to families is limited to sixty months unless the family is exempt under the hardship exception that applies to up to twenty percent of the caseload. States can choose to place more restrictive time limits on TANF recipients, and they can choose to use state funds to help families after five years. Under the JOBS program, people with disabilities (those “ill or incapacitated...

    On August 22, 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, known as the federal welfare reform bill or PRWORA, was signed by President Clinton. This legislation created the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program to replace the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and JOBS programs. Unlike the previous open-ended federal financial participation system, TANF is funded through a block grant. The new TANF program advocates a “work first” philosophy to public assistance, placing a time limit on benefits and requiring that TANF recipients engage in work or work-related activities to participate in the program. Under federal law, TANF-funded assistance to families is limited to sixty months unless the family is exempt under the hardship exception that applies to up to twenty percent of the caseload. States can choose to place more restrictive time limits on TANF recipients, and they can choose to use state funds to help families after five years. Under the JOBS program, people with disabilities (those “ill or incapacitated”) were categorically exempt from working. Under TANF, many states are taking a narrower view of who should be exempt from work requirements.

    Federal law prevents states from using federal dollars to help families who have received federal TANF assistance for more than sixty months in their lifetime. The intent is to move as many people off the welfare rolls and into gainful employment as possible. However, many TANF recipients, including people with disabilities, face barriers to employment that make the transition from welfare to work difficult. According to the Department of Labor (DOL), people who are disabled are more likely to live below the poverty line than those who are not disabled. In 1995, thirty percent of working age people with disabilities had incomes below the poverty line, three times higher than people without disabilities. In addition, people with disabilities that do work earn less than their nondisabled peers, and are more likely to have jobs that pay below minimum wage and lack opportunities for training and advancement. In an economy that increasingly requires technical skills and life-long learning, many people with disabilities are entering the workforce at a disadvantage. Particularly for TANF recipients with disabilities, the challenge of finding and keeping a good job can be considerable. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Thompson, Terri S.; Holcomb. Pamela A.; Loprest, Pamela; Brennan, Kathleen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    The focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) on work and temporary cash assistance is likely to have significant implications for welfare recipients with disabilities and individuals who care for recipients with disabilities (caregivers). Prior to welfare reform, disabled recipients and caregivers were generally exempt from participating in welfare-to-work programs and cash assistance was available for an unlimited period. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which states have used the flexibility provided under PRWORA to change their welfare-to-work policies as applied to individuals with disabilities and caregivers. States' decisions about policy changes must be balanced against two key challenges presented by welfare reform:

    1. States must consider the diverse needs of individuals with disabilities while meeting the work participation and other requirements established in federal law. States now have the latitude to design their welfare-to-work programs in ways they believe will best meet...

    The focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) on work and temporary cash assistance is likely to have significant implications for welfare recipients with disabilities and individuals who care for recipients with disabilities (caregivers). Prior to welfare reform, disabled recipients and caregivers were generally exempt from participating in welfare-to-work programs and cash assistance was available for an unlimited period. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which states have used the flexibility provided under PRWORA to change their welfare-to-work policies as applied to individuals with disabilities and caregivers. States' decisions about policy changes must be balanced against two key challenges presented by welfare reform:

    1. States must consider the diverse needs of individuals with disabilities while meeting the work participation and other requirements established in federal law. States now have the latitude to design their welfare-to-work programs in ways they believe will best meet the needs of their clients. States may also decide who among the welfare population will be required to participate in these programs. However, states are required to meet increasing work participation requirements or face financial penalties. Additionally, states must continue to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and other civil rights statutes.

    2. The imposition of state and federal time limits increases the immediacy of welfare recipients' need for help in overcoming their barriers to work and self-sufficiency. Welfare agencies have not historically been required to focus on the needs of many clients with serious barriers to employment or self-sufficiency—including individuals with disabilities—and now must develop service strategies that achieve this end within 60 months (or less in some states).

    This study represents a first attempt to provide a nationwide overview of welfare-to-work policies for individuals with disabilities and caregivers. To obtain this overview of state policies, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) plans and other relevant policy documents were reviewed and conversations were held with welfare agency staff in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report does not provide detail on local-level implementation or local pilot projects. Additional detail about policy implementation will be obtained through case studies of a small number of policy approaches to be conducted in the second phase of this project.

    The major findings of this report are:

    • The majority of states have changed their work participation policies to require participation among some individuals with disabilities and caregivers who were previously exempt.
    • States are in the early stages of making decisions about who should be required to participate in welfare-to-work services, who should be expected to move off welfare within 60 months, and what services will best help recipients achieve this objective.

    (author abstract)

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