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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Labella, Madelyn H.; McCormick, Christopher M.; Narayan, Angela J.; Desjardins, Christopher D. ; Masten, Ann S.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    A multimethod, multi-informant design was used to examine links among sociodemographic risk, family adversity, parenting quality, and child adjustment in families experiencing homelessness. Participants were 245 homeless parents (Mage = 31.0, 63.6% African American) and their 4- to 6-year-old children (48.6% male). Path analyses revealed unique associations by risk domain: Higher sociodemographic risk predicted more externalizing behavior and poorer teacher–child relationships, whereas higher family adversity predicted more internalizing behavior. Parenting quality was positively associated with peer acceptance and buffered effects of family adversity on internalizing symptoms, consistent with a protective effect. Parenting quality was associated with lower externalizing behavior only when sociodemographic risk was below the sample mean. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

    A multimethod, multi-informant design was used to examine links among sociodemographic risk, family adversity, parenting quality, and child adjustment in families experiencing homelessness. Participants were 245 homeless parents (Mage = 31.0, 63.6% African American) and their 4- to 6-year-old children (48.6% male). Path analyses revealed unique associations by risk domain: Higher sociodemographic risk predicted more externalizing behavior and poorer teacher–child relationships, whereas higher family adversity predicted more internalizing behavior. Parenting quality was positively associated with peer acceptance and buffered effects of family adversity on internalizing symptoms, consistent with a protective effect. Parenting quality was associated with lower externalizing behavior only when sociodemographic risk was below the sample mean. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bhatt, Chintan B. ; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Objectives. To explore the effect of Medicaid expansion on US infant mortality rate.

    Methods. We examined data from 2010 to 2016 and 2014 to 2016 to compare infant mortality rates in states and Washington, DC, that accepted the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion (Medicaid expansion states) and states that did not (non–Medicaid expansion states), stratifying data by race/ethnicity.

    Results. Mean infant mortality rate in non–Medicaid expansion states rose (6.4 to 6.5) from 2014 to 2016 but declined in Medicaid expansion states (5.9 to 5.6). Mean difference in infant mortality rate in Medicaid expansion versus non–Medicaid expansion states increased from 0.573 (P = .08) in 2014 to 0.838 in 2016 (P = .006) because of smaller declines in non–Medicaid expansion (11.0%) than in Medicaid expansion (15.2%) states. The 14.5% infant mortality rate decline from 11.7 to 10.0 in African American infants in Medicaid expansion states was more than twice that in non–Medicaid expansion states (6.6%: 12.2 to 11.4; P = .012).

    Conclusions....

    Objectives. To explore the effect of Medicaid expansion on US infant mortality rate.

    Methods. We examined data from 2010 to 2016 and 2014 to 2016 to compare infant mortality rates in states and Washington, DC, that accepted the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion (Medicaid expansion states) and states that did not (non–Medicaid expansion states), stratifying data by race/ethnicity.

    Results. Mean infant mortality rate in non–Medicaid expansion states rose (6.4 to 6.5) from 2014 to 2016 but declined in Medicaid expansion states (5.9 to 5.6). Mean difference in infant mortality rate in Medicaid expansion versus non–Medicaid expansion states increased from 0.573 (P = .08) in 2014 to 0.838 in 2016 (P = .006) because of smaller declines in non–Medicaid expansion (11.0%) than in Medicaid expansion (15.2%) states. The 14.5% infant mortality rate decline from 11.7 to 10.0 in African American infants in Medicaid expansion states was more than twice that in non–Medicaid expansion states (6.6%: 12.2 to 11.4; P = .012).

    Conclusions. Infant mortality rate decline was greater in Medicaid expansion states, with greater declines among African American infants. Future research should explore what aspects of Medicaid expansion may improve infant survival. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Kia-Keating, Maryam; Nylund-Gibson, Karen ; Kia-Keating, Brett M. ; Schock, Christine ; Grimm, Ryan P.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Early poverty is associated with a cumulative load of family and community risk factors that can impact the development of self-regulatory abilities and result in socio-emotional and achievement gaps which begin early and persist across the lifespan. Ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented among children living in poverty. The longitudinal trajectories of self-regulation are important to understand in this population, in order to best inform prevention efforts. This study examines patterns of self-regulation over time among young, ethnic minority children living in low income, urban households. A stratified, random sample of 555 children, ages 2 to 4 years, (46% Black, 46% Hispanic; 47% female) were followed over three waves (including 1 and 5 year follow-ups). Internalizing and externalizing behaviors at approximately age nine were predicted by children’s early self-regulation. Latent class analyses revealed low, medium, and high levels of self-regulatory abilities at wave 1 (mean age: 2.99, SD = .81) and low and high levels, 1 year later (mean age: 4.39 (SD = .94...

    Early poverty is associated with a cumulative load of family and community risk factors that can impact the development of self-regulatory abilities and result in socio-emotional and achievement gaps which begin early and persist across the lifespan. Ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented among children living in poverty. The longitudinal trajectories of self-regulation are important to understand in this population, in order to best inform prevention efforts. This study examines patterns of self-regulation over time among young, ethnic minority children living in low income, urban households. A stratified, random sample of 555 children, ages 2 to 4 years, (46% Black, 46% Hispanic; 47% female) were followed over three waves (including 1 and 5 year follow-ups). Internalizing and externalizing behaviors at approximately age nine were predicted by children’s early self-regulation. Latent class analyses revealed low, medium, and high levels of self-regulatory abilities at wave 1 (mean age: 2.99, SD = .81) and low and high levels, 1 year later (mean age: 4.39 (SD = .94). A gender effect was found whereby girls were more likely than boys to be in the high self-regulation class relative to the low at both waves. Using Latent Transition Analysis, distal outcomes were examined approximately 5 years after the initial assessment (mean age: 8.83, SD = .93). Children who sustained a higher level of self-regulation over time had the lowest internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Transition to low self-regulation at wave 2, regardless of initial self-regulation status, was related to greater severity of internalizing symptoms. Implications for prevention and future research are discussed. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Burd-Sharps, Sarah; Lewis, Kristen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    In 2016, the number of young people disconnected from both work and school declined for the sixth year in a row. The 2016 disconnected youth rate of 11.7 percent represents a 20 percent decrease since 2010, when disconnection peaked in the aftermath of the Great Recession—about 1.2 million fewer young people. A large group of young people saw their opportunities expand alongside the expanding economy; the youth unemployment rate was roughly half in 2016 what it was in 2010. But not all young people saw growth: 4.6 million young women and men remain disconnected from both school and the labor market, unmoored from routines of work and school that give shape, purpose, and direction to one’s days, and deprived of experiences that build knowledge, networks, skills, and confidence.

    More than a Million Reasons for Hope: Youth Disconnection in America Today analyzes youth disconnection in the United States by state, metro area, county, and community type, and by gender, race, and ethnicity. Disconnected youth, also known as opportunity youth, are teenagers and young...

    In 2016, the number of young people disconnected from both work and school declined for the sixth year in a row. The 2016 disconnected youth rate of 11.7 percent represents a 20 percent decrease since 2010, when disconnection peaked in the aftermath of the Great Recession—about 1.2 million fewer young people. A large group of young people saw their opportunities expand alongside the expanding economy; the youth unemployment rate was roughly half in 2016 what it was in 2010. But not all young people saw growth: 4.6 million young women and men remain disconnected from both school and the labor market, unmoored from routines of work and school that give shape, purpose, and direction to one’s days, and deprived of experiences that build knowledge, networks, skills, and confidence.

    More than a Million Reasons for Hope: Youth Disconnection in America Today analyzes youth disconnection in the United States by state, metro area, county, and community type, and by gender, race, and ethnicity. Disconnected youth, also known as opportunity youth, are teenagers and young adults between the ages of 16 and 24 who are neither in school nor working. This report is the first in Measure of America’s disconnected youth series to compare American and European metro areas or to examine disconnection by group characteristics such as poverty status, motherhood, marriage status, disability, English proficiency, citizenship, educational attainment, institutionalization, and household composition for different racial and ethnic groups. (Author introduction)

     

  • Individual Author: Wang, Rui ; Chen, Xi; Li, Xun
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    Flint changed its public water source in 2014, causing severe water contaminations. We estimate the effect of in utero exposure to contaminated water on health at birth using the recent Flint water crisis as a natural experiment. Matching vital statistics birth records with various sources of data, this paper employs a difference-in-differences method as well as a synthetic control method to identify its causal impact on key birth outcomes. Our results suggest that the contaminated water modestly increased probability of low birth weight by 1.1-1.8% but only insignificantly reduced birth weight by 6-19 grams, presumably due to more salient changes in birth weight around the low birth weight cut-off than across the whole distribution. These results survive a rich set of placebo and falsification tests. There are larger effects for wider windows of in utero exposure and especially for Black Americans. We find little evidence on sex ratios at birth, indicating that the scarring effect in utero may dominate the channel of mortality selection. To better understand the...

    Flint changed its public water source in 2014, causing severe water contaminations. We estimate the effect of in utero exposure to contaminated water on health at birth using the recent Flint water crisis as a natural experiment. Matching vital statistics birth records with various sources of data, this paper employs a difference-in-differences method as well as a synthetic control method to identify its causal impact on key birth outcomes. Our results suggest that the contaminated water modestly increased probability of low birth weight by 1.1-1.8% but only insignificantly reduced birth weight by 6-19 grams, presumably due to more salient changes in birth weight around the low birth weight cut-off than across the whole distribution. These results survive a rich set of placebo and falsification tests. There are larger effects for wider windows of in utero exposure and especially for Black Americans. We find little evidence on sex ratios at birth, indicating that the scarring effect in utero may dominate the channel of mortality selection. To better understand the physiological and psychological mechanisms behind, future studies need to distinguish the effect due to a surge in lead. (Author abstract)

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