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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Lee, Hedwig; Andrew, Megan; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Lumeng, Julie C.; Lee, Joyce M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between timing of poverty and risk of first-incidence obesity from ages 3 to 15.5 years. Methods. We used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991–2007) to study 1150 children with repeated measures of income, weight, and height from birth to 15.5 years in 10 US cities. Our dependent variable was the first incidence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). We measured poverty (income-to-needs ratio < 2) prior to age 2 years and a lagged, time-varying measure of poverty between ages 2 and 12 years. We estimated discrete-time hazard models of the relative risk of first transition to obesity. Results. Poverty prior to age 2 years was associated with risk of obesity by age 15.5 years in fully adjusted models. These associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that there are enduring associations between early life poverty and adolescent obesity. This stage in the life course may serve as a critical...

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between timing of poverty and risk of first-incidence obesity from ages 3 to 15.5 years. Methods. We used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991–2007) to study 1150 children with repeated measures of income, weight, and height from birth to 15.5 years in 10 US cities. Our dependent variable was the first incidence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). We measured poverty (income-to-needs ratio < 2) prior to age 2 years and a lagged, time-varying measure of poverty between ages 2 and 12 years. We estimated discrete-time hazard models of the relative risk of first transition to obesity. Results. Poverty prior to age 2 years was associated with risk of obesity by age 15.5 years in fully adjusted models. These associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that there are enduring associations between early life poverty and adolescent obesity. This stage in the life course may serve as a critical period for both poverty and obesity prevention.  (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Sallis, James F. ; Slymen, Donald J.; Conway, Terry L.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Cain, Kelli; Chapman, James E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    The present study explored whether perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with physical activity differ by neighborhood income. Adults aged 20-65 years (n=2199; 48% female; mean age=45 years; 26% ethnic minority) were recruited from 32 neighborhoods from the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions that varied in objectively measured walkability and neighborhood income. Perceived built and social environment variables were assessed with the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. There were neighborhood income disparities on 10 of 15 variables. Residents from high-income neighborhoods reported more favorable esthetics, pedestrian/biking facilities, safety from traffic, safety from crime, and access to recreation facilities than residents of low-income areas (all p's <0.001). Low-income neighborhoods may lack amenities and safety attributes that can facilitate high levels of physical activity for both transportation and recreation purposes. (Author abstract)

    The present study explored whether perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with physical activity differ by neighborhood income. Adults aged 20-65 years (n=2199; 48% female; mean age=45 years; 26% ethnic minority) were recruited from 32 neighborhoods from the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions that varied in objectively measured walkability and neighborhood income. Perceived built and social environment variables were assessed with the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. There were neighborhood income disparities on 10 of 15 variables. Residents from high-income neighborhoods reported more favorable esthetics, pedestrian/biking facilities, safety from traffic, safety from crime, and access to recreation facilities than residents of low-income areas (all p's <0.001). Low-income neighborhoods may lack amenities and safety attributes that can facilitate high levels of physical activity for both transportation and recreation purposes. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pearson, Carol; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Locke, Gretchen
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    This article presents findings from an exploratory study of three programs using the Housing First approach to provide permanent supportive housing for single, homeless adults with serious mental illness and often co-occurring substance-related disorders. This approach provides direct, or nearly direct, access to housing that is intended to be permanent without requiring sobriety or psychiatric treatment. Findings from the three programs examined for this study indicate that the Housing First approach may help the hardest-to-serve chronically homeless population achieve housing stability. Of the 80 participants tracked over 12 months, 84% remained enrolled in the Housing First program for 1 year following program entry. One half of those spent every night in their Housing First unit, while the others spent some time in other living environments. (author abstract)

    This article presents findings from an exploratory study of three programs using the Housing First approach to provide permanent supportive housing for single, homeless adults with serious mental illness and often co-occurring substance-related disorders. This approach provides direct, or nearly direct, access to housing that is intended to be permanent without requiring sobriety or psychiatric treatment. Findings from the three programs examined for this study indicate that the Housing First approach may help the hardest-to-serve chronically homeless population achieve housing stability. Of the 80 participants tracked over 12 months, 84% remained enrolled in the Housing First program for 1 year following program entry. One half of those spent every night in their Housing First unit, while the others spent some time in other living environments. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hawkins, J. David; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F.; Hill, Karl G.; Abbott, Robert D.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    Objective  To examine the long-term effects of a universal intervention in elementary schools in promoting positive functioning in school, work, and community, and preventing mental health problems, risky sexual behavior, substance misuse, and crime at ages 24 and 27 years.

    Design  Nonrandomized controlled trial.

    Setting  Fifteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington.

    Participants  Sex-balanced and multiracial/multiethnic sample of 598 participants at ages 24 and 27 years (93% of the original sample in these conditions).

    Interventions  Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops.

    Main Outcome Measures  Self-reports of functioning in school, work, and community and of mental health, sexual behavior, substance use, and crime, and court records.

    Results  A significant...

    Objective  To examine the long-term effects of a universal intervention in elementary schools in promoting positive functioning in school, work, and community, and preventing mental health problems, risky sexual behavior, substance misuse, and crime at ages 24 and 27 years.

    Design  Nonrandomized controlled trial.

    Setting  Fifteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington.

    Participants  Sex-balanced and multiracial/multiethnic sample of 598 participants at ages 24 and 27 years (93% of the original sample in these conditions).

    Interventions  Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops.

    Main Outcome Measures  Self-reports of functioning in school, work, and community and of mental health, sexual behavior, substance use, and crime, and court records.

    Results  A significant multivariate intervention effect across all 16 primary outcome indices was found. Specific effects included significantly better educational and economic attainment, mental health, and sexual health by age 27 years (all P < .05). Hypothesized effects on substance use and crime were not found at ages 24 or 27 years.

    Conclusions  A universal intervention for urban elementary schoolchildren, which focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices, positively affected mental health, sexual health, and educational and economic achievement 15 years after the intervention ended. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pearson, Carol L.; Locke, Gretchen; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Buron, Larry
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    This report presents the findings from an exploratory study of the Housing First approach of providing permanent supportive housing to single, homeless adults with mental illness and co-occurring substance-related disorders. In recent years, Congress and the leadership of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) have encouraged the development of permanent housing for homeless people. Concurrently, there has been a shift toward committing a greater proportion of HUD McKinney-Vento Act funds toward housing as opposed to supportive services and an increase in attention toward the hardest-to-serve, chronically homeless population, a substantial number of whom are mentally ill. Because it addresses this population and its needs, the Housing First approach is currently experiencing increased attention as a method of serving this population consistent with the above-stated goals. (author abstract)

    This report presents the findings from an exploratory study of the Housing First approach of providing permanent supportive housing to single, homeless adults with mental illness and co-occurring substance-related disorders. In recent years, Congress and the leadership of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) have encouraged the development of permanent housing for homeless people. Concurrently, there has been a shift toward committing a greater proportion of HUD McKinney-Vento Act funds toward housing as opposed to supportive services and an increase in attention toward the hardest-to-serve, chronically homeless population, a substantial number of whom are mentally ill. Because it addresses this population and its needs, the Housing First approach is currently experiencing increased attention as a method of serving this population consistent with the above-stated goals. (author abstract)

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