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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hill, Terrence D.; Jorgenson, Andrew
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    We test whether income inequality undermines female and male life expectancy in the United States. We employ data for all 50 states and the District of Columbia and two-way fixed effects to model state-level average life expectancy as a function of multiple income inequality measures and time-varying characteristics. We find that state-level income inequality is inversely associated with female and male life expectancy. We observe this general pattern across four measures of income inequality and under the rigorous conditions of state-specific and year-specific fixed effects. If income inequality undermines life expectancy, redistribution policies could actually improve the health of states. (Author abstract)

    We test whether income inequality undermines female and male life expectancy in the United States. We employ data for all 50 states and the District of Columbia and two-way fixed effects to model state-level average life expectancy as a function of multiple income inequality measures and time-varying characteristics. We find that state-level income inequality is inversely associated with female and male life expectancy. We observe this general pattern across four measures of income inequality and under the rigorous conditions of state-specific and year-specific fixed effects. If income inequality undermines life expectancy, redistribution policies could actually improve the health of states. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Atkins, Marc; Kelleher, Kelly; Peth-Pierce, Robin; Olin, Serene; Burns, Barbara; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    At a time when the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents, particularly in those living at a low income, is increasing dramatically and only 2% of children using publicly funded services receive evidence-based services, it is timely to ask whether federal funding for research on the delivery of effective services, the structure of systems, and the development and implementation of effective interventions is keeping pace. It is even more critical to ask this question when faced with near-certain cuts to programs that provide mental health services (e.g., Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income) and a safety net (e.g., Earned Income Tax Credit, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) for many low-income families. (Author abstract)

    At a time when the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents, particularly in those living at a low income, is increasing dramatically and only 2% of children using publicly funded services receive evidence-based services, it is timely to ask whether federal funding for research on the delivery of effective services, the structure of systems, and the development and implementation of effective interventions is keeping pace. It is even more critical to ask this question when faced with near-certain cuts to programs that provide mental health services (e.g., Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income) and a safety net (e.g., Earned Income Tax Credit, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) for many low-income families. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Prindle, John J.; Hammond, Ivy; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Infants have the highest rates of maltreatment reporting and entries to foster care. Prenatal substance exposure is thought to contribute to early involvement with child protective services (CPS), yet there have been limited data with which to examine this relationship or variations by substance type. Using linked birth, hospital discharge, and CPS records from California, we estimated the population prevalence of medically diagnosed substance exposure and neonatal withdrawal disorders at birth. We then explored the corresponding rates of CPS involvement during the first year of life by substance type after adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors. Among 551,232 infants born alive in 2006, 1.45% (n = 7994) were diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure at birth; 61.2% of those diagnosed were reported to CPS before age 1 and nearly one third (29.9%) were placed in foster care. Medically diagnosed prenatal substance exposure was strongly associated with an infant’s likelihood of being reported to CPS, yet significant variation in the likelihood and level of CPS...

    Infants have the highest rates of maltreatment reporting and entries to foster care. Prenatal substance exposure is thought to contribute to early involvement with child protective services (CPS), yet there have been limited data with which to examine this relationship or variations by substance type. Using linked birth, hospital discharge, and CPS records from California, we estimated the population prevalence of medically diagnosed substance exposure and neonatal withdrawal disorders at birth. We then explored the corresponding rates of CPS involvement during the first year of life by substance type after adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors. Among 551,232 infants born alive in 2006, 1.45% (n = 7994) were diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure at birth; 61.2% of those diagnosed were reported to CPS before age 1 and nearly one third (29.9%) were placed in foster care. Medically diagnosed prenatal substance exposure was strongly associated with an infant’s likelihood of being reported to CPS, yet significant variation in the likelihood and level of CPS involvement was observed by substance type. Although these data undoubtedly understate the prevalence of prenatal illicit drug and alcohol use, this study provides a population-based characterization of a common pathway to CPS involvement during infancy. Future research is needed to explicate the longer-term trajectories of infants diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure, including the role of CPS. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Paris, Ruth; Sommer, Amy; Marron, Beth
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2018

    In the context of increasing rates of opioid misuse, particularly by women of childbearing age with histories of trauma, this chapter describes the background, evidence base, conceptual framework, and practice parameters for an attachment-based evidence-informed dyadic intervention utilizing the principles of child-parent psychotherapy with mothers and infants impacted by substance use disorders (SUDs). A strong focus of this chapter is to elaborate on the emotional needs of mothers in early recovery as they enter into the parenting role and on the needs of substance-exposed newborns and their role in fragile infant-parent dyads. A case is presented at the end of the chapter so that readers are better able to conceptualize this novel application of dyadic psychotherapy. (Author abstract)

    In the context of increasing rates of opioid misuse, particularly by women of childbearing age with histories of trauma, this chapter describes the background, evidence base, conceptual framework, and practice parameters for an attachment-based evidence-informed dyadic intervention utilizing the principles of child-parent psychotherapy with mothers and infants impacted by substance use disorders (SUDs). A strong focus of this chapter is to elaborate on the emotional needs of mothers in early recovery as they enter into the parenting role and on the needs of substance-exposed newborns and their role in fragile infant-parent dyads. A case is presented at the end of the chapter so that readers are better able to conceptualize this novel application of dyadic psychotherapy. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Woolf, Steven H.; Aron, Laudan
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2018

    White Americans are dying at higher rates from drugs, alcohol, and suicides. And the sharpest increases are happening in rural counties, often in regions with long-standing social and economic challenges. The reasons behind these increases are unclear and complex. The opioid epidemic plays a role but is just one part of a larger public health crisis. Life expectancy in the US as a whole has fallen for the second year in a row, and the nation’s health relative to other countries has been declining for decades. Some combination of factors in American life must explain why the rise in mortality is greatest among white, middle-aged adults and certain rural communities. Possibilities include the collapse of industries and the local economies they supported, greater social isolation, economic hardship, and distress among white workers over losing the security their parents’ generation once enjoyed. Also, over the past 30 years, income inequality and other social divides have widened, middle-class incomes have stagnated, and poverty rates have exceeded those of most rich countries.  ...

    White Americans are dying at higher rates from drugs, alcohol, and suicides. And the sharpest increases are happening in rural counties, often in regions with long-standing social and economic challenges. The reasons behind these increases are unclear and complex. The opioid epidemic plays a role but is just one part of a larger public health crisis. Life expectancy in the US as a whole has fallen for the second year in a row, and the nation’s health relative to other countries has been declining for decades. Some combination of factors in American life must explain why the rise in mortality is greatest among white, middle-aged adults and certain rural communities. Possibilities include the collapse of industries and the local economies they supported, greater social isolation, economic hardship, and distress among white workers over losing the security their parents’ generation once enjoyed. Also, over the past 30 years, income inequality and other social divides have widened, middle-class incomes have stagnated, and poverty rates have exceeded those of most rich countries.  Recent legislation and regulations, however, may prolong or intensify the economic burden on the middle class and weaken access to health care and safety net programs. The consequences of these choices are dire—not only more deaths and illness, but also escalating health care costs, a sicker workforce, and a less competitive economy. (Author abstract) 

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