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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Larin, Kathryn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and administered by states, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) programs served about 0.5 percent of the approximately 43.5 million SNAP recipients in an average month of fiscal year 2016, according to the most recent USDA data available. These programs are generally designed to help SNAP recipients increase their ability to obtain regular employment through services such as job search and training. Some recipients may be required to participate. According to USDA, about 14 percent of SNAP recipients were subject to work requirements in an average month of fiscal year 2016, while others, such as children and the elderly, were generally exempt from these requirements. States have flexibility in how they design their E&T programs. Over the last several years, states have 1) increasingly moved away from programs that mandate participation, 2) focused on serving able-bodied adults without dependents whose benefits are generally time-limited unless they comply with work...

    Overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and administered by states, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) programs served about 0.5 percent of the approximately 43.5 million SNAP recipients in an average month of fiscal year 2016, according to the most recent USDA data available. These programs are generally designed to help SNAP recipients increase their ability to obtain regular employment through services such as job search and training. Some recipients may be required to participate. According to USDA, about 14 percent of SNAP recipients were subject to work requirements in an average month of fiscal year 2016, while others, such as children and the elderly, were generally exempt from these requirements. States have flexibility in how they design their E&T programs. Over the last several years, states have 1) increasingly moved away from programs that mandate participation, 2) focused on serving able-bodied adults without dependents whose benefits are generally time-limited unless they comply with work requirements, and 3) partnered with state and local organizations to deliver services. USDA has taken steps to increase support and oversight of SNAP E&T since 2014, including collecting new data on participant outcomes from states. GAO has ongoing work reviewing SNAP E&T programs, including USDA oversight. USDA and the states partner to address issues that affect program integrity, including improper payments and fraud, and USDA has taken some steps to address challenges in these areas, but issues remain. 

    • Improper Payments. In 2016, GAO reviewed SNAP improper payment rates and found that states’ adoption of program flexibilities and changes in federal SNAP policy in the previous decade, as well as improper payment rate calculation methods, likely affected these rates. Although USDA reported improper payment estimates for SNAP in previous years, USDA did not report an estimate for benefits paid in fiscal years 2015 or 2016 due to data quality issues in some states. USDA has since been working with the states to improve improper payment estimates for the fiscal year 2017 review.
    • Recipient Fraud. In 2014, GAO made recommendations to USDA to address challenges states faced in combatting recipient fraud. For example, GAO found that USDA’s guidance on the use of transaction data to uncover potential trafficking lacked specificity and recommended USDA develop additional guidance. Since then, USDA has provided technical assistance to some states, including on the use of data analytics. GAO has ongoing work reviewing states’ use of data analytics to identify SNAP recipient fraud.
    • Retailer Trafficking. In 2006, GAO identified several ways in which SNAP was vulnerable to retailer trafficking—a practice involving the exchange of benefits for cash or non-food items. For example, USDA had not conducted analyses to identify high-risk retailers and target its resources. Since then, USDA has established risk levels for retailers based on various factors. GAO has ongoing work assessing how USDA prevents, detects, and responds to retailer trafficking and reviewing the usefulness of USDA’s estimates of the extent of SNAP retailer trafficking. (Author introduction)
  • Individual Author: Thrasher, Dory
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2017

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recertification process.

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recertification process.

  • Individual Author: Cerf, Benjamin; Leach, Mark A.; Mitchell, Josh; Shattuck, Rachel M.
    Year: 2017

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes how the great recession of 2007-2010 has exacerbated the economic instability of many U.S. families, and how it has renewed Congressional interest in evaluating programs like SNAP, WIC, and TANF.

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes how the great recession of 2007-2010 has exacerbated the economic instability of many U.S. families, and how it has renewed Congressional interest in evaluating programs like SNAP, WIC, and TANF.

  • Individual Author: Rowe, Gretchen; Brown, Elizabeth; Estes, Brian
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This study uses surveys of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. This study uses surveys of SNAP E&T participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. (Author abstract)

    This study uses surveys of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. This study uses surveys of SNAP E&T participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Strawn, Julie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Career pathways help people upgrade their skills and advance to better jobs over time through a stackable set of education and training steps and credentials within a particular industry. States and localities have increasingly adopted the career pathways framework to better connect previously “siloed” education and training services, strengthen links to employer needs, and support participant success. As States expand and improve SNAP Employment and Training (SNAP E&T) 50 percent reimbursement (50-50) programs, they should consider how E&T can be incorporated into existing career pathways systems to get better results for their participants. State SNAP agencies can do this by—

    • Engaging in career pathways conversations already happening at the State and local level to think broadly about how SNAP E&T participants and services can best be integrated into State and regional pathway strategies.
    • Thinking strategically about the most efficient use of SNAP E&T funds—how can E&T build on what already exists to create comprehensive, evidence-based...

    Career pathways help people upgrade their skills and advance to better jobs over time through a stackable set of education and training steps and credentials within a particular industry. States and localities have increasingly adopted the career pathways framework to better connect previously “siloed” education and training services, strengthen links to employer needs, and support participant success. As States expand and improve SNAP Employment and Training (SNAP E&T) 50 percent reimbursement (50-50) programs, they should consider how E&T can be incorporated into existing career pathways systems to get better results for their participants. State SNAP agencies can do this by—

    • Engaging in career pathways conversations already happening at the State and local level to think broadly about how SNAP E&T participants and services can best be integrated into State and regional pathway strategies.
    • Thinking strategically about the most efficient use of SNAP E&T funds—how can E&T build on what already exists to create comprehensive, evidence-based pathway approaches that improve participant outcomes? This might include, for example, increasing career coaching, providing support services, or adding contextualized basic skills instruction through integrated education and training.
    • Choosing SNAP E&T 50-50 partners who are already implementing career pathways well and helping to expand their services to more E&T participants.

    States may find that an added benefit to integrating SNAP E&T services and participants into career pathway efforts is a stronger alignment of E&T with the workforce system. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) emphasizes career pathways as well as related strategies, such as integrated education and training and industry sector partnerships. (Author abstract) 

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