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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2016

    This set of selections focuses on executive functioning. SSRC Selections highlight research, evaluation reports, and other publications that inform the field about key issues in, and effective practices for, fostering economic self-sufficiency.

    This set of selections focuses on executive functioning. SSRC Selections highlight research, evaluation reports, and other publications that inform the field about key issues in, and effective practices for, fostering economic self-sufficiency.

  • Individual Author: Sun, Jing; Patel, Falguni; Kirzner, Rachel; Newton-Famous, Nijah; Owens, Constance; Welles, Seth L.; Chilton, Mariana
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    Background: Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 hours per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships.

    Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full) and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and...

    Background: Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 hours per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships.

    Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full) and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and interaction with criminal justice systems.

    Results: Baseline characteristics demonstrate that among 103 participants, there were no significant differences by group. Mean age of participants was 25 years, and youngest child was 30 months. The majority of participants were women (94.2 %), never married (83.5 %), unemployed (94.2 %), and without a bank account (66.0 %). Many reported economic hardship (32.0 % very low household food secure, 65.0 % housing insecure, and 31.1 % severe energy insecure), and depression (57.3 %). Exposure to adversity was prevalent, where 38.8 % reported four or more Adverse Childhood Experiences including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. In terms of community violence, 64.7 % saw a seriously wounded person after an incident of violence, and 27.2 % had seen someone killed. Finally, 14.6 % spent time in an adult correctional institution, and 48.5 % of the fathers of the youngest child spent time in prison.

    Conclusions: Baseline findings demonstrate that caregivers participating in TANF have suffered significant childhood adversity, adult violence exposure, and poverty-related stressors that can limit workforce success. High prevalence of housing and food insecurity, exposure to adversity, violence and criminal justice systems demands comprehensive programming to support families. Trauma-informed approaches to career readiness such as the Building Wealth and Health Network offer opportunities for potential success in the workforce. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Murray, Desiree W.; Rosanbalm, Kate; Christopoulos, Christina
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    This report is the fourth and final in a series on Self-Regulation and Toxic Stress; it is targeted specifically towards program administrators and practitioners. This report reviews the key concepts for understanding self-regulation, including the relationship between stress and self-regulation. Additionally, it summarizes principal findings from a comprehensive review of self-regulation interventions. Finally and most importantly, it addresses how current theory and knowledge of self-regulation may apply to programs and practitioners serving children and youth in different developmental groups from birth through young adulthood.

    Key conclusions from the report indicate that:

    • A variety of self-regulation interventions result in meaningful positive effects on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral self-regulation, as well as broader outcomes across development in functional domains like mental health and academic achievement.
    • Many promising intervention approaches exist for supporting self-regulation development that could be incorporated into existing...

    This report is the fourth and final in a series on Self-Regulation and Toxic Stress; it is targeted specifically towards program administrators and practitioners. This report reviews the key concepts for understanding self-regulation, including the relationship between stress and self-regulation. Additionally, it summarizes principal findings from a comprehensive review of self-regulation interventions. Finally and most importantly, it addresses how current theory and knowledge of self-regulation may apply to programs and practitioners serving children and youth in different developmental groups from birth through young adulthood.

    Key conclusions from the report indicate that:

    • A variety of self-regulation interventions result in meaningful positive effects on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral self-regulation, as well as broader outcomes across development in functional domains like mental health and academic achievement.
    • Many promising intervention approaches exist for supporting self-regulation development that could be incorporated into existing ACF programs.
    • Care is needed in selecting interventions that may be a good “fit” for relevant populations and settings.
    • Given the profound impacts that self-regulation can have across areas of functioning into adulthood, a self-regulation framework to support the well-being of children and families living in adversity may have great value. (Author abstract)
  • Individual Author: Murray, Desiree W.; Rosanbalm, Katie; Christopoulos, Christina
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    This report describes the results of a comprehensive review of self-regulation interventions spanning birth to young adulthood and a range of outcomes. It also summarizes the level of evidence for the different interventions. Additionally, the report provides details on the methodological approach and data findings, including figures with detailed descriptions for the reader who is interested in the evidence base supporting the conclusions. (author abstract)

    This report describes the results of a comprehensive review of self-regulation interventions spanning birth to young adulthood and a range of outcomes. It also summarizes the level of evidence for the different interventions. Additionally, the report provides details on the methodological approach and data findings, including figures with detailed descriptions for the reader who is interested in the evidence base supporting the conclusions. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lantos, Hannah; Wilkinson, Andra
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2016

    Posted by Hannah Lantos and Andra Wilkinson, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse and Child Trends Staff

     

    Today we hear the phrase 'trauma-informed care' frequently at government agencies, school districts, job training programs, hospitals, and among researchers. The surge is significant. An Internet search engine review shows that between 1986 and 2000, the term comes up 54 times. Between 2001 and 2015, it comes up 2,540 times. Why the interest now and what does it mean for self-sufficiency researchers and practitioners?

    In the last two decades, research has begun to show how prevalent trauma is and how those experiences, particularly in childhood, can impact long-term health and well-being. In 1998, a seminal paper on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs...

    Posted by Hannah Lantos and Andra Wilkinson, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse and Child Trends Staff

     

    Today we hear the phrase 'trauma-informed care' frequently at government agencies, school districts, job training programs, hospitals, and among researchers. The surge is significant. An Internet search engine review shows that between 1986 and 2000, the term comes up 54 times. Between 2001 and 2015, it comes up 2,540 times. Why the interest now and what does it mean for self-sufficiency researchers and practitioners?

    In the last two decades, research has begun to show how prevalent trauma is and how those experiences, particularly in childhood, can impact long-term health and well-being. In 1998, a seminal paper on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) analyzed a broad sample of Californians and found high rates of housing instability, physical or sexual abuse, or parental discord during childhood. More than 50% of the respondents reported experiencing at least one of these ACEs, while 6.2% reported experiencing four or more. In 2014, a subsequent ACEs study held focus groups with low-income urban young adults to see whether the original list of ACEs was salient to them. They identified the following additional adverse experiences: living in a single-parent home, exposure to violence, criminal behavior, personal victimization, bullying, economic hardship, and discrimination.

    In the last decade there has also been a surge of neuroscientific and psychological research on childhood stress. Referred to in the literature is toxic stress—it is triggered when the body’s stress response system is over-activated to the point where health can be compromised. When children experience stress that reaches toxic levels (through either acute or chronic exposure), this can lead to feelings of terror, helplessness, and loss of trust—all symptoms of trauma. When children have repeated or sustained elevated levels of stress and no adult to help them learn how to regulate these stressors (or when adults are the cause of the elevated stress), children’s brain development can be seriously impacted. Fewer neuronal connections may be made, thus impacting the child’s behavior, self-regulation, and impulsivity. 

    Young people who are from disadvantaged backgrounds (e.g., in foster care, homeless, or involved in the juvenile justice system), are from low-income families, and/or are members of a racial or ethnic minorities report higher rates of potentially traumatic experiences. Research has highlighted the potential consequences of childhood trauma later in life on both physical and mental health, which can then hinder professional success and self-sufficiency. For example, research has focused on how children who have experienced trauma are sometimes less able to effectively control their attention, remember details, plan, or be flexible in their thinking. These skills are often referred to as executive functioning skills and interventions that take a trauma-informed approach to employment or education supports focus on practicing them. These specific skills can improve self-sufficiency in populations of young people who are much more likely to be at risk for trauma. 
     
    To take a trauma-informed approach when working with young people, programs must recognize a history of trauma; treat the trauma symptoms, if possible; respond to behavior that may be shaped by that trauma; and make serious, intentional efforts to minimize the chance of re-traumatization. For example, a recent evaluation of a program in Tennessee designed to help youth from foster care or juvenile justice programs transition to adulthood focuses on life skills, mental health (including trauma-focused therapy), education, housing, and employment. Evaluators of this program found that participation in one year of services translated to positive outcomes in earnings and economic well-being, among other outcomes. 
     
    Even when research doesn’t describe trauma-informed approaches explicitly, it often highlights the potential for programs to support and improve the life outcomes of young people who may have experienced trauma. Successful programs minimize re-traumatization and provide young people opportunities to learn how to cope and develop essential skills for self-sufficiency. Research also highlights the need for explicit discussions of trauma as well as sensitive measures of ongoing trauma and stress to better understand the role these play as mediators between program participation and outcomes for youth. It is important for practitioners to understand this developing literature so that they can support young people in having as healthy a transition to adulthood as possible given their histories of exposure to potentially traumatizing experiences.
     
    Learn more about trauma among youth in the SSRC Library:
     
    A recently posted SSRC Selection on trauma, youth, and self-sufficiency includes more in-depth descriptions of resources. Additionally, the SSRC Library contains numerous reports and stakeholder resources about trauma and trauma-informed approaches, including:

    For more resources, check out the SSRC Library and subscribe to SSRC or follow us on Twitter to receive updates about upcoming events, new library materials on self-sufficiency topics of interest to you and more.

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