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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hahn, Heather
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    Work-related requirements—such as employment, job search, job training, or community engagement activities—are currently a condition of eligibility for some safety net programs. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), housing assistance and Medicaid each include work-related requirements in some states or localities for some beneficiaries. Recent proposals would expand or introduce new work requirements in these and other safety net programs, which offer vital supports for families to meet their basic needs.

    For parents, meeting work requirements to gain or maintain eligibility for safety net programs and access to vital supports is not as straightforward as simply engaging in the required work activities. Parents must not only understand what the requirements are, but be able to access the necessary training and supports to meet the requirements and document their compliance. If they qualify for an exemption, they must learn how to document this as well. Agencies administering safety net programs must be able...

    Work-related requirements—such as employment, job search, job training, or community engagement activities—are currently a condition of eligibility for some safety net programs. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), housing assistance and Medicaid each include work-related requirements in some states or localities for some beneficiaries. Recent proposals would expand or introduce new work requirements in these and other safety net programs, which offer vital supports for families to meet their basic needs.

    For parents, meeting work requirements to gain or maintain eligibility for safety net programs and access to vital supports is not as straightforward as simply engaging in the required work activities. Parents must not only understand what the requirements are, but be able to access the necessary training and supports to meet the requirements and document their compliance. If they qualify for an exemption, they must learn how to document this as well. Agencies administering safety net programs must be able to efficiently process each case.

    This report illustrates and explores the complex pathways parents who are subject to work requirements must navigate to maintain their access to the safety net. Some pathways may lead families to maintain their access to benefits, while others could lead them to lose access to benefits for which they are still eligible. (Edited author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Parolin, Zachary; Luigjes, Christiaan
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Spending on cash assistance from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program has declined across the U.S. throughout recent decades. Simultaneously, spending on the federally-funded Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs has steadily increased. This papers investigates whether retrenchment of TANF assistance has led to increases in the participation and levels of benefit receipt of SNAP and SSI. Applying a differences-in-differences approach on household income data from 1997 to 2015, we find that a $50 policy-induced decline in states’ TANF cash assistance allocations leads to an increase of between $17 to $32 per month in federal allocations of SNAP and SSI benefits among single-mother households. From a household income perspective, these findings suggest that increases in SNAP and SSI participation have partially offset the retrenchment in TANF assistance. From a state incentive perspective, we find that state governments have the ability, and even a financial incentive, to shift social assistance...

    Spending on cash assistance from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program has declined across the U.S. throughout recent decades. Simultaneously, spending on the federally-funded Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs has steadily increased. This papers investigates whether retrenchment of TANF assistance has led to increases in the participation and levels of benefit receipt of SNAP and SSI. Applying a differences-in-differences approach on household income data from 1997 to 2015, we find that a $50 policy-induced decline in states’ TANF cash assistance allocations leads to an increase of between $17 to $32 per month in federal allocations of SNAP and SSI benefits among single-mother households. From a household income perspective, these findings suggest that increases in SNAP and SSI participation have partially offset the retrenchment in TANF assistance. From a state incentive perspective, we find that state governments have the ability, and even a financial incentive, to shift social assistance caseloads to the federal government. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Parolin, Zachary; Brady, David
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    This paper applies improved household income data to reevaluate the levels, trends, composition, and role of social policy in extreme child poverty in the U.S. from 1997-2015. Unlike prior research, we correct for the underreporting of means-tested transfers and incorporate the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). Doing so reduces the share of children below $2 per day from about 1.8% to 0.1%. That said, we acknowledge use of survey data omits the estimated 1.3 million homeless children in 2014-2015. We find that three different measures of extreme child poverty have declined since 1997. Unlike prior literature’s focus on single motherhood, citizenship status is the more consequential characteristic. Between 58-73% of children in extreme poverty live in households headed by non-citizens. Simulations granting them access to the median SNAP benefit reduce their extreme poverty substantially. Two-way fixed effects models show that higher state-level generosity and take up of SNAP and TANF significantly reduce extreme poverty. Unlike prior research’s focus on the...

    This paper applies improved household income data to reevaluate the levels, trends, composition, and role of social policy in extreme child poverty in the U.S. from 1997-2015. Unlike prior research, we correct for the underreporting of means-tested transfers and incorporate the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP). Doing so reduces the share of children below $2 per day from about 1.8% to 0.1%. That said, we acknowledge use of survey data omits the estimated 1.3 million homeless children in 2014-2015. We find that three different measures of extreme child poverty have declined since 1997. Unlike prior literature’s focus on single motherhood, citizenship status is the more consequential characteristic. Between 58-73% of children in extreme poverty live in households headed by non-citizens. Simulations granting them access to the median SNAP benefit reduce their extreme poverty substantially. Two-way fixed effects models show that higher state-level generosity and take up of SNAP and TANF significantly reduce extreme poverty. Unlike prior research’s focus on the decline of TANF, we show SNAP has grown in generosity and take-up. In turn, changes to social policy since 1997 have probably had offsetting effects on extreme child poverty. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Calloway, Erik; Gundersen, Craig; Henchy, Geraldine; Abdi, Fadumo
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2018

    The Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC) sponsored a webinar on childhood obesity, Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options for Low-Income School-Aged Children?, on January 3, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. EST. This webinar focused on childhood obesity through the lens of social equity. It also discussed food environment, including natural and built environments, to highlight circumstances underpinning differences in obesity rates between children in different socioeconomic statuses and from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. During the free webinar, Dr. Craig Gundersen discussed the impact of food assistance programs available to low-income children and their families in the home and at school. Erik Calloway focused on the built environment of neighborhood factors impacting childhood obesity across various socioeconomic statuses. Finally, Geraldine Henchy closed with a discussion of the present and future of federal and state level efforts to reduce and prevent childhood obesity.

    This document is the transcript from Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options...

    The Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC) sponsored a webinar on childhood obesity, Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options for Low-Income School-Aged Children?, on January 3, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. EST. This webinar focused on childhood obesity through the lens of social equity. It also discussed food environment, including natural and built environments, to highlight circumstances underpinning differences in obesity rates between children in different socioeconomic statuses and from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. During the free webinar, Dr. Craig Gundersen discussed the impact of food assistance programs available to low-income children and their families in the home and at school. Erik Calloway focused on the built environment of neighborhood factors impacting childhood obesity across various socioeconomic statuses. Finally, Geraldine Henchy closed with a discussion of the present and future of federal and state level efforts to reduce and prevent childhood obesity.

    This document is the transcript from Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options for Low-Income School-Aged Children? Listen to the recording from the Webinar here. The PowerPoint presentation from the webinar can be found here. A record of the question and answer session from the webinar can be found here.

  • Individual Author: Calloway, Erik; Gundersen, Craig; Henchy, Geraldine; Abdi, Fadumo
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2018

    The Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC) sponsored a webinar on childhood obesity, Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options for Low-Income School-Aged Children?, on January 3, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. EST. This webinar focused on childhood obesity through the lens of social equity. It also discussed food environment, including natural and built environments, to highlight circumstances underpinning differences in obesity rates between children in different socioeconomic statuses and from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. During the free webinar, Dr. Craig Gundersen discussed the impact of food assistance programs available to low-income children and their families in the home and at school. Erik Calloway focused on the built environment of neighborhood factors impacting childhood obesity across various socioeconomic statuses. Finally, Geraldine Henchy closed with a discussion of the present and future of federal and state level efforts to reduce and prevent childhood obesity.

    This document is the Webinar Q&A from Childhood Obesity: What Are the...

    The Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC) sponsored a webinar on childhood obesity, Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options for Low-Income School-Aged Children?, on January 3, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. EST. This webinar focused on childhood obesity through the lens of social equity. It also discussed food environment, including natural and built environments, to highlight circumstances underpinning differences in obesity rates between children in different socioeconomic statuses and from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. During the free webinar, Dr. Craig Gundersen discussed the impact of food assistance programs available to low-income children and their families in the home and at school. Erik Calloway focused on the built environment of neighborhood factors impacting childhood obesity across various socioeconomic statuses. Finally, Geraldine Henchy closed with a discussion of the present and future of federal and state level efforts to reduce and prevent childhood obesity.

    This document is the Webinar Q&A from Childhood Obesity: What Are the Options for Low-Income School-Aged Children? Listen to the recording from the Webinar here. The Webinar transcript can be found here. The PowerPoint presentation from the Webinar can be found here.

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