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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Woo Baidal, Jennifer A.; Nelson, Candace C.; Perkins, Meghan; Colchamiro, Rachel; Leung-Strle, Peggy; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Gortmaker, Steve L.; Davison, Kirsten K.; Taveras, Elsie M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Objective

    To examine the extent to which a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) intervention improved BMI z scores and obesity-related behaviors among children age 2 to 4 years.

    Methods

    In two Massachusetts communities, practice changes in WIC were implemented as part of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) initiative to prevent obesity among low-income children. One WIC program was the comparison. Changes in BMI z scores pre and post intervention and prevalence of obesity-related behaviors of WIC participants were assessed. Linear mixed models were used to examine BMI z score change, and logistic regression models were used to examine changes in obesity-related behaviors in each intervention site versus comparison over 2 years.

    Results

    WIC-enrolled children in both intervention sites (vs. comparison) had improved sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and sleep duration. Compared to the comparison WIC program (n = 626), no differences were observed in BMI z score among...

    Objective

    To examine the extent to which a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) intervention improved BMI z scores and obesity-related behaviors among children age 2 to 4 years.

    Methods

    In two Massachusetts communities, practice changes in WIC were implemented as part of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) initiative to prevent obesity among low-income children. One WIC program was the comparison. Changes in BMI z scores pre and post intervention and prevalence of obesity-related behaviors of WIC participants were assessed. Linear mixed models were used to examine BMI z score change, and logistic regression models were used to examine changes in obesity-related behaviors in each intervention site versus comparison over 2 years.

    Results

    WIC-enrolled children in both intervention sites (vs. comparison) had improved sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and sleep duration. Compared to the comparison WIC program (n = 626), no differences were observed in BMI z score among children in Intervention Site #1 (n = 198) or #2 (n = 637). In sensitivity analyses excluding Asian children, a small decline was observed in BMI z score (−0.08 units/y [95% confidence interval: −0.14 to −0.02], P = 0.01) in Intervention Site #2 versus comparison.

    Conclusions

    Among children enrolled in WIC, the MA-CORD intervention was associated with reduced prevalence of obesity risk factors in both intervention communities and a small improvement in BMI z scores in one of two intervention communities in non-Asian children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Olson, Steve
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2017

    After decades of increases in the obesity rate among U.S. adults and children, the rate recently has dropped among some populations, particularly young children. What are the factors responsible for these changes? How can promising trends be accelerated? What else needs to be known to end the epidemic of obesity in the United States?

    To examine these and other pressing questions, the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions, of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, held a workshop in September 2016. The workshop brought together leaders from business, early care and education, government, health care, and philanthropy to discuss the most promising approaches for the future of obesity prevention and treatment. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. (Author abstract)

    After decades of increases in the obesity rate among U.S. adults and children, the rate recently has dropped among some populations, particularly young children. What are the factors responsible for these changes? How can promising trends be accelerated? What else needs to be known to end the epidemic of obesity in the United States?

    To examine these and other pressing questions, the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions, of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, held a workshop in September 2016. The workshop brought together leaders from business, early care and education, government, health care, and philanthropy to discuss the most promising approaches for the future of obesity prevention and treatment. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cerf, Benjamin; Leach, Mark A.; Mitchell, Josh; Shattuck, Rachel M.
    Year: 2017

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes how the great recession of 2007-2010 has exacerbated the economic instability of many U.S. families, and how it has renewed Congressional interest in evaluating programs like SNAP, WIC, and TANF.

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes how the great recession of 2007-2010 has exacerbated the economic instability of many U.S. families, and how it has renewed Congressional interest in evaluating programs like SNAP, WIC, and TANF.

  • Individual Author: Smith, Kristin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) serves millions of low-income women, infants, and children who are at nutritional risk by providing checks or vouchers for nutritious foods, nutrition counseling, breastfeeding support, and health care referrals. Foods eligible for WIC are high in certain nutrients and designed to meet the special nutritional needs of low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum women, as well as infants and children up to age 5. Research has shown that WIC is a successful and cost-effective program. Numerous studies find that WIC participation improves pre- and postnatal health outcomes; families; overall nutrition; access to prenatal care, health care for children, and immunizations; and children's cognitive development and academic achievement. In 2015, the average monthly WIC benefit was $43.58 per person. Easing the costs associated with buying nutritional foods frees up family resources for other necessities, like housing and medical costs. Families with pre-tax incomes up to 185 percent of the federal...

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) serves millions of low-income women, infants, and children who are at nutritional risk by providing checks or vouchers for nutritious foods, nutrition counseling, breastfeeding support, and health care referrals. Foods eligible for WIC are high in certain nutrients and designed to meet the special nutritional needs of low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum women, as well as infants and children up to age 5. Research has shown that WIC is a successful and cost-effective program. Numerous studies find that WIC participation improves pre- and postnatal health outcomes; families; overall nutrition; access to prenatal care, health care for children, and immunizations; and children's cognitive development and academic achievement. In 2015, the average monthly WIC benefit was $43.58 per person. Easing the costs associated with buying nutritional foods frees up family resources for other necessities, like housing and medical costs. Families with pre-tax incomes up to 185 percent of the federal poverty line are eligible for the program. WIC benefits are especially important for rural families, as the poverty rate is higher in rural than in urban areas (18 percent compared with 15 percent in 2014). It is important to consider uptake differences by place type as research indicates that rural women perceive more stigma surrounding participation in government assistance programs compared with women in urban areas. (author summary)

  • Individual Author: Danielson, Caroline; Bohn, Sarah
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Food and nutrition assistance programs help children gain access to adequate amounts of nutritious food—reducing child hunger and food insecurity as well as promoting healthy development. Yet in California, enrollment varies widely across counties and across the main nutrition programs that serve children: CalFresh, popularly known as food stamps; the WIC program, which serves infants and preschool-age children; and school meals, which include lunch and often other meals. Increasing children’s enrollment in CalFresh and achieving healthier outcomes for Californians are priorities for the state. The governor’s January 2016 budget set a goal of enrolling 400,000 more eligible children in CalFresh over two years.

    This report assesses children’s eligibility for CalFresh and eligible children’s participation in the three main nutrition programs to explore opportunities for improving enrollment and the benefits of higher enrollment. Key findings include:

    • CalFresh has lower enrollment than free school meals and WIC. In 2015, 24 percent of all California children...

    Food and nutrition assistance programs help children gain access to adequate amounts of nutritious food—reducing child hunger and food insecurity as well as promoting healthy development. Yet in California, enrollment varies widely across counties and across the main nutrition programs that serve children: CalFresh, popularly known as food stamps; the WIC program, which serves infants and preschool-age children; and school meals, which include lunch and often other meals. Increasing children’s enrollment in CalFresh and achieving healthier outcomes for Californians are priorities for the state. The governor’s January 2016 budget set a goal of enrolling 400,000 more eligible children in CalFresh over two years.

    This report assesses children’s eligibility for CalFresh and eligible children’s participation in the three main nutrition programs to explore opportunities for improving enrollment and the benefits of higher enrollment. Key findings include:

    • CalFresh has lower enrollment than free school meals and WIC. In 2015, 24 percent of all California children participated in CalFresh, while more than twice as many age-eligible children (51%) were enrolled in free school meals; 44 percent of infants and 34 percent of young children were enrolled in WIC.
    • There is substantial potential to expand the impact of nutrition programs. We estimate that if all CalFresh-eligible children were fully enrolled in both CalFresh and either free school meals or WIC, these programs would reach 1.6 million more children.
    • Infants and young children are better connected to nutrition programs. Among CalFresh-eligible children, we find that 12 percent of public school students participate in neither CalFresh nor free school meals—more than a quarter million school children (331,000). In contrast, only 4 percent of infants (21,000) and 9 percent of young children (87,000) are disconnected from both CalFresh and WIC.
    • Higher participation in nutrition programs would lower child poverty. Among public school students living in poverty, we project that full participation in nutrition programs would increase family resources by 15 percent. Among infants and young children living in poverty, we project that family resources would increase by 9 percent following full participation in nutrition programs.

    To some extent, lower CalFresh enrollment reflects more restrictive eligibility requirements. However, there is good reason to believe that more children participating in free school meals and WIC could be connected to CalFresh. Currently, most policies designed to integrate nutrition programs run from CalFresh to school meals. Building robust, two-way connections could help counties and the state better achieve the goals of these programs so more children have access to adequate, nutritious food. (Author abstract)

      

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