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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2017

    This set of selections focuses on TANF sanctions and work requirements. SSRC Selections highlight research, evaluation reports, and other publications that inform the field about key issues in, and effective practices for, fostering economic self-sufficiency.
    See more at: https://www.opressrc.org/content/ssrc-selections-executive-functioning

    This set of selections focuses on TANF sanctions and work requirements. SSRC Selections highlight research, evaluation reports, and other publications that inform the field about key issues in, and effective practices for, fostering economic self-sufficiency.
    See more at: https://www.opressrc.org/content/ssrc-selections-executive-functioning

  • Individual Author: Wissel, Sarah; Borradaile, Kelley
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Many programs attempting to improve employment outcomes for low-income adults use financial incentives or sanctions to motivate participants to obtain and/or retain a job. This brief describes the employment and earnings impacts of 12 interventions, identified by the Employment Strategies for Low-Income Adults Evidence Review, that used financial incentives or sanctions as a primary strategy. It also highlights four promising interventions and their impacts in more detail. (author abstract)

    Many programs attempting to improve employment outcomes for low-income adults use financial incentives or sanctions to motivate participants to obtain and/or retain a job. This brief describes the employment and earnings impacts of 12 interventions, identified by the Employment Strategies for Low-Income Adults Evidence Review, that used financial incentives or sanctions as a primary strategy. It also highlights four promising interventions and their impacts in more detail. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Thiebaud Nicoli, Lisa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    In this brief, we provide a snapshot of what work sanctions look like in Maryland today. Focusing on cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find that 60% of cases subject to the work requirement received at least one work sanction during that year. Maryland’s most severe work sanction, which closes the case for 30 days, is also the most common sanction. Of cases that received a work sanction, one in four had at least one more work sanction during the same year. (Author abstract)

    In this brief, we provide a snapshot of what work sanctions look like in Maryland today. Focusing on cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find that 60% of cases subject to the work requirement received at least one work sanction during that year. Maryland’s most severe work sanction, which closes the case for 30 days, is also the most common sanction. Of cases that received a work sanction, one in four had at least one more work sanction during the same year. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Thiebaud Nicoli, Lisa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    In this brief, we explore differences among Temporary Cash Assistance (TCA) clients with 1-day, 10-day, and 30-day work sanctions. Using the entire population of work-eligible cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find considerable diversity within the work-sanctioned population. Customers with 1-day work sanctions have more advantageous characteristics, such as a greater likelihood of education beyond high school. Customers with 30-day sanctions are a distinct population: they were the most likely to return to TCA, and they earned the least, both before receiving TCA and after case closure. (Author abstract)

    In this brief, we explore differences among Temporary Cash Assistance (TCA) clients with 1-day, 10-day, and 30-day work sanctions. Using the entire population of work-eligible cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find considerable diversity within the work-sanctioned population. Customers with 1-day work sanctions have more advantageous characteristics, such as a greater likelihood of education beyond high school. Customers with 30-day sanctions are a distinct population: they were the most likely to return to TCA, and they earned the least, both before receiving TCA and after case closure. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wu, Chi-Fang; Cancian, Maria ; Wallace, Geoffrey
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Using longitudinal administrative data for Wisconsin, this article accounts for the length of time on welfare and the length of sanctioning to better understand the effect of work-related financial sanctions on cash welfare (TANF) participants' program exits and subsequent employment. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) remains an important, if less generous, part of the safety net for families with children. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the time on welfare, duration of sanctions, and post-welfare employment and earnings outcomes. The results indicate that being sanctioned increases the likelihood of transition off TANF cash assistance and this effect increases with the duration of the sanction. In addition to measuring the effects of welfare sanctions on individual participants, the article also estimates the effects of agency sanction policies, using measures of the risk of sanctions at the agency level. Agency policy effects were of interest both because they addressed the potential effects of changes in the threat of sanctions - even on...

    Using longitudinal administrative data for Wisconsin, this article accounts for the length of time on welfare and the length of sanctioning to better understand the effect of work-related financial sanctions on cash welfare (TANF) participants' program exits and subsequent employment. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) remains an important, if less generous, part of the safety net for families with children. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the time on welfare, duration of sanctions, and post-welfare employment and earnings outcomes. The results indicate that being sanctioned increases the likelihood of transition off TANF cash assistance and this effect increases with the duration of the sanction. In addition to measuring the effects of welfare sanctions on individual participants, the article also estimates the effects of agency sanction policies, using measures of the risk of sanctions at the agency level. Agency policy effects were of interest both because they addressed the potential effects of changes in the threat of sanctions - even on those not directly subject to them - and because the agency effects were not subject to the same concerns about unobserved individual heterogeneity between sanctioned and non-sanctioned participants. We found that an increase in an agency's use of sanctions resulted in increased exits to no job, to jobs paying less than cash benefits, and to jobs paying more than available cash benefits. Our results have important implications for understanding the consequences of financial sanctions for public program participants. (author abstract)

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