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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Anderson, Dennis H.
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2009

    During the most recent economic downturn, and for that matter since calendar year 2000, the staff at the Dakota County (Minnesota) Public Assistance program, like those from other localities throughout the country, has seen dramatic increases in requests from individuals and families needing help. Since calendar year 2000, the unduplicated caseload has more than doubled. (author abstract)

    During the most recent economic downturn, and for that matter since calendar year 2000, the staff at the Dakota County (Minnesota) Public Assistance program, like those from other localities throughout the country, has seen dramatic increases in requests from individuals and families needing help. Since calendar year 2000, the unduplicated caseload has more than doubled. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rosenberg, Linda; Derr, Michelle; Pavetti, LaDonna; Asheer, Subuhi; Angus, Megan H.; Sattar, Samina; Max, Jeffrey
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) created a new work-oriented framework for providing assistance to low-income families. Within this framework, states were given a block grant and considerable flexibility to create new support systems for families that encouraged work and discouraged long-term reliance on government-provided cash assistance. Responding to concerns that families that turn to the welfare system for support may find it hard to leave, states began implementing “diversion” programs to keep families whose needs could be met through other means from ever coming on to the welfare rolls. In response to higher effective work participation rates that followed the reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program in 2005, states have added new policies and programs that divert TANF-eligible families from the TANF system.

    This report describes states’ policies on and experiences with diversion programs. To document the states’ diversion strategies, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR)...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) created a new work-oriented framework for providing assistance to low-income families. Within this framework, states were given a block grant and considerable flexibility to create new support systems for families that encouraged work and discouraged long-term reliance on government-provided cash assistance. Responding to concerns that families that turn to the welfare system for support may find it hard to leave, states began implementing “diversion” programs to keep families whose needs could be met through other means from ever coming on to the welfare rolls. In response to higher effective work participation rates that followed the reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program in 2005, states have added new policies and programs that divert TANF-eligible families from the TANF system.

    This report describes states’ policies on and experiences with diversion programs. To document the states’ diversion strategies, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) conducted the Identifying Promising TANF Diversion Practices Study for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families (ACF). Data for the study were collected through a state survey, a telephone interview with designated representatives in each state, and visits to two states to learn more about their diversion strategies. Data collection began in December 2007 and ended in March 2008. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hetling, Andrea; Ovwigho, Pamela C.; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2007

    Cash diversion strategies, a 1996 U.S. welfare reform innovation, are intended to alleviate short-term crises and prevent the need for ongoing cash assistance among certain welfare applicants. Using administrative data, this work compares the welfare outcomes of Maryland Welfare Avoidance Grant recipients from October 1998 to September 2000 (n p 1,992) with those of a sample of welfare leavers (n p 1,219). It relies on event-history analyses and covers a 3-year follow-up period. Findings show that diversion grants lower, to a statistically significant degree, the relative odds of future cash assistance among first time welfare agency clients but have no demonstrated effect among those with a history of welfare receipt. (author abstract)

    Cash diversion strategies, a 1996 U.S. welfare reform innovation, are intended to alleviate short-term crises and prevent the need for ongoing cash assistance among certain welfare applicants. Using administrative data, this work compares the welfare outcomes of Maryland Welfare Avoidance Grant recipients from October 1998 to September 2000 (n p 1,992) with those of a sample of welfare leavers (n p 1,219). It relies on event-history analyses and covers a 3-year follow-up period. Findings show that diversion grants lower, to a statistically significant degree, the relative odds of future cash assistance among first time welfare agency clients but have no demonstrated effect among those with a history of welfare receipt. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gonzales, Lisa; Hudson, Kenneth; Acker, Joan
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2007

    As part of welfare reform, many states developed programs to “divert” applicants from receiving public assistance. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from Oregon are used to assess the outcomes of diverted women during a 21-month period in 1998 and 1999. Within nine months of their initial application, about half of those who were diverted received TANF. Prior welfare use did not increase the likelihood of TANF use. By the end of the study, half of all respondents had incomes below the federal poverty threshold, with more women dropping below the poverty level than rising above it. Neither employment nor TANF receipt during the study had a significant impact on the respondent's poverty status. (author abstract)

    As part of welfare reform, many states developed programs to “divert” applicants from receiving public assistance. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from Oregon are used to assess the outcomes of diverted women during a 21-month period in 1998 and 1999. Within nine months of their initial application, about half of those who were diverted received TANF. Prior welfare use did not increase the likelihood of TANF use. By the end of the study, half of all respondents had incomes below the federal poverty threshold, with more women dropping below the poverty level than rising above it. Neither employment nor TANF receipt during the study had a significant impact on the respondent's poverty status. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hetling, Andrea; Tracy, Kirk; Born, Catherine E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    Critics of diversion grants, lump-sum payments designed to alleviate short-term emergencies and prevent the need for ongoing Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) receipt, claim that recipients use monetary amounts similar to traditional welfare recipients. This paper examines the total cash grants for two cohorts of TANF applicants: those whose applications resulted in a TANF grant and those who received a diversion grant. Multivariate regression models show that diversion leads to a reduction of $1,841.44 in cash benefit receipt during the three-year tracking period (p < 0.001). Findings suggest that diversion payments are not TANF under another name. (author abstract)

    Critics of diversion grants, lump-sum payments designed to alleviate short-term emergencies and prevent the need for ongoing Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) receipt, claim that recipients use monetary amounts similar to traditional welfare recipients. This paper examines the total cash grants for two cohorts of TANF applicants: those whose applications resulted in a TANF grant and those who received a diversion grant. Multivariate regression models show that diversion leads to a reduction of $1,841.44 in cash benefit receipt during the three-year tracking period (p < 0.001). Findings suggest that diversion payments are not TANF under another name. (author abstract)

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