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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Arkin, Monica
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2018

    Posted by Monica Arkin, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse Staff

    Case workers and other practitioners in the welfare system benefit from keeping abreast of new research and clinical approaches when working with clients. One such method that has been around for decades but has only recently been popularized in the field of self-sufficiency is motivational interviewing. Developed in the 1980s by clinical psychologists William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick, motivational interviewing was created as an approach to behavioral change particularly for individuals dealing with substance use disorders. Compared with the more traditional dynamic of counselor-patient relationships, which commonly features an expert counselor educating or persuading a less-informed client, motivational interviewing...

    Posted by Monica Arkin, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse Staff

    Case workers and other practitioners in the welfare system benefit from keeping abreast of new research and clinical approaches when working with clients. One such method that has been around for decades but has only recently been popularized in the field of self-sufficiency is motivational interviewing. Developed in the 1980s by clinical psychologists William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick, motivational interviewing was created as an approach to behavioral change particularly for individuals dealing with substance use disorders. Compared with the more traditional dynamic of counselor-patient relationships, which commonly features an expert counselor educating or persuading a less-informed client, motivational interviewing occurs in the context of a partnership where client autonomy is the foundation. Together, the counselor and client engage in a collaborative conversation about identifying problems and solutions, particularly by focusing on barriers to change that are preventing progress toward the client’s goals. Rather than imposing change externally, motivational interviewing seeks to elicit and strengthen an individual’s intrinsic motivation for change.

    Since its initial development in substance abuse treatment spaces, motivational interviewing has proven to be an effective approach for facilitating productive change in various client contexts. With respect to self-sufficiency, studies of TANF-eligible client outcomes have shown that motivational interviewing is a valuable addition to case worker interventions. For example, a six-month follow-up evaluation of 322 randomly selected TANF-eligible clients participating in Kentucky’s Targeted Assessment Program (TAP), which combines motivational interviewing, holistic assessment and strengths-based case management, found medium-to-strong decreases in self-reported barriers to self-sufficiency. These included barriers related to physical health (at six-month follow-up the percentage of participants who had seen a doctor in the previous 12 months decreased, as did the percentage of participants who wanted to see a doctor but reported being unable to), mental health (feeling badly about oneself, having thoughts of self-harm, and feeling worried or anxious), substance use, and intimate partner violence. Additionally, TAP participants reported lower work difficulty and higher employment rates at the time of follow-up.

    Another study found a connection between motivational interviewing and veterans’ self-sufficiency. Eighty-four veterans who had psychiatric disorders and had applied for service-connected compensation were assigned to either a control condition, where they received an orientation to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system and services, or an experimental condition, where they received four 50-minute sessions of individual counseling that followed a motivational interviewing framework. At a six-month follow up, veterans in the experimental group reported significantly more days of paid employment compared with participants in the control group. This suggests that motivational interviewing may reduce barriers to employment that are associated with disability payments for psychiatric disorders.

    The benefits of motivational interviewing serve the client as well as the practitioner. A qualitative study in Alamance County, North Carolina gathered the perceptions of case workers within the child welfare system that were trained in motivational interviewing. When initial training was supplemented with coaching from clinical coaches, case workers reported that motivational interviewing “helped them deal with difficult issues they encountered, changed-long held perspectives, and provided a new approach to working with families.”

    The SSRC Library contains numerous reports and stakeholder resources about motivational interviewing, including:

    For more resources, check out the SSRC Library and subscribe to the SSRC or follow us on Twitter to receive updates about upcoming events, new library materials on self-sufficiency topics of interest to you and more.

     

  • Individual Author: Waters, Damon; Chester, Hilary; Gaffney, Angela; Hetling, Andrea
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    This session discussed how TANF and employment services programs can serve special populations. Presenters shared strategies that state and local systems use to provide financial support and related employment services to newly arrived refugees, the feasibility and benefits of providing enhanced employment services to foreign trafficking victims, and a risk assessment tool for domestic violence survivors applying for services and waivers under the Family Violence Options. Damon Waters (Administration for Children and Families) moderated this session.

     

    This session discussed how TANF and employment services programs can serve special populations. Presenters shared strategies that state and local systems use to provide financial support and related employment services to newly arrived refugees, the feasibility and benefits of providing enhanced employment services to foreign trafficking victims, and a risk assessment tool for domestic violence survivors applying for services and waivers under the Family Violence Options. Damon Waters (Administration for Children and Families) moderated this session.

     

  • Individual Author: Spaulding, Shayne; Gebrekristos, Semhar
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Access to stable employment with adequate pay is critical for families’ stability and livelihood. The public workforce system helps job seekers access training and jobs and can contribute to the economic stability of children, yet we know little about how the system meets families’ needs. This report provides a picture of workforce program services for parents under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), the primary law authorizing programs under the public workforce system, which was signed into law in 2014. To explore this issue, the Urban Institute fielded a survey in 2017 of workforce development boards (WDBs) in partnership with the National Association of Workforce Boards and Innovate+Educate, which are collaborating on the Family Centered Employment Initiative. Although not representative, the survey provides an understanding of implementation of family-friendly services in six areas: planning and oversight, data, partnerships, delivery of services, funding, and policy. We found that although many WDBs are targeting families and putting in place partnerships...

    Access to stable employment with adequate pay is critical for families’ stability and livelihood. The public workforce system helps job seekers access training and jobs and can contribute to the economic stability of children, yet we know little about how the system meets families’ needs. This report provides a picture of workforce program services for parents under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), the primary law authorizing programs under the public workforce system, which was signed into law in 2014. To explore this issue, the Urban Institute fielded a survey in 2017 of workforce development boards (WDBs) in partnership with the National Association of Workforce Boards and Innovate+Educate, which are collaborating on the Family Centered Employment Initiative. Although not representative, the survey provides an understanding of implementation of family-friendly services in six areas: planning and oversight, data, partnerships, delivery of services, funding, and policy. We found that although many WDBs are targeting families and putting in place partnerships, funding, and services to meet their needs, there are opportunities to expand these efforts, to collect better data to inform services and improve state and federal policies that were reported as barriers to serving families. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Hahn, Heather; Adams, Gina; Spaulding, Shayne; Heller, Caroline
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Low-income families receiving cash assistance through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) also need assistance with workforce development and child care. Workforce development and child care subsidy systems support low-income families and individuals, but are TANF families well served by these systems? This report outlines the opportunities that the workforce development and child care subsidy systems offer, highlights the challenges of meeting the complex needs of these highly disadvantaged families, and identifies implications for federal and state policy improvements. (Author abstract)

    Low-income families receiving cash assistance through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) also need assistance with workforce development and child care. Workforce development and child care subsidy systems support low-income families and individuals, but are TANF families well served by these systems? This report outlines the opportunities that the workforce development and child care subsidy systems offer, highlights the challenges of meeting the complex needs of these highly disadvantaged families, and identifies implications for federal and state policy improvements. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Derr, Michelle K.; Brown, Elizabeth
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    This report describes the programmatic factors within the current TANF environment that may influence the numbers of work-eligible individuals or families with reported zero hours of participation, and promising strategies that state and local TANF agencies are using to encourage client engagement.

    The study identifies nine factors gleaned from communication with TANF administrators and direct service staff that appear to affect the number of families reported to have zero hours. The authors grouped these factors into three categories: TANF Policies and Procedures; Service Delivery and Performance Management; and Initial Activities and Ongoing Transitions. The authors also highlight a variety of state strategies for increasing engagement by improving policies and procedures, strengthening service delivery and performance management, and streamlining initial activities and ongoing transitions between activities. The report is based on interviews with TANF administrators in 30 states, site visits to 11 communities in 8 states, and document reviews. (author abstract)

    This report describes the programmatic factors within the current TANF environment that may influence the numbers of work-eligible individuals or families with reported zero hours of participation, and promising strategies that state and local TANF agencies are using to encourage client engagement.

    The study identifies nine factors gleaned from communication with TANF administrators and direct service staff that appear to affect the number of families reported to have zero hours. The authors grouped these factors into three categories: TANF Policies and Procedures; Service Delivery and Performance Management; and Initial Activities and Ongoing Transitions. The authors also highlight a variety of state strategies for increasing engagement by improving policies and procedures, strengthening service delivery and performance management, and streamlining initial activities and ongoing transitions between activities. The report is based on interviews with TANF administrators in 30 states, site visits to 11 communities in 8 states, and document reviews. (author abstract)

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