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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Bitler, Marianne; Hoynes, Hilary; Domina, Thurston
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Preschool interventions are arguably one of the most important elements of support for poor families. Head Start, a federal program for children in low-income families administered through the Department of Health and Human Services, is a case in point. While research shows a range of benefits lasting beyond preschool for participants, evidence of the “fade-out” of cognitive gains of the preschool years and the differential impact of the program on children with different skill levels in the preschool population has prompted debate over its efficacy. Our recent work is the first comprehensive analysis of how modern Head Start impacts vary across the skill distribution in the preschool and early elementary period. We find evidence of a large and positive short-term effect of Head Start, and that cognitive gains are largest at the bottom of the achievement spectrum, particularly among Hispanic children. The results of our study and others showing a positive effect in other areas add to the evidence of the success of Head Start in improving the wellbeing of poor children. (Author...

    Preschool interventions are arguably one of the most important elements of support for poor families. Head Start, a federal program for children in low-income families administered through the Department of Health and Human Services, is a case in point. While research shows a range of benefits lasting beyond preschool for participants, evidence of the “fade-out” of cognitive gains of the preschool years and the differential impact of the program on children with different skill levels in the preschool population has prompted debate over its efficacy. Our recent work is the first comprehensive analysis of how modern Head Start impacts vary across the skill distribution in the preschool and early elementary period. We find evidence of a large and positive short-term effect of Head Start, and that cognitive gains are largest at the bottom of the achievement spectrum, particularly among Hispanic children. The results of our study and others showing a positive effect in other areas add to the evidence of the success of Head Start in improving the wellbeing of poor children. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Kim, Hyunil; Drake, Brett
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Background: Child maltreatment is a pressing social problem in the USA and internationally. There are increasing calls for the use of a public health approach to child maltreatment, but the effective adoption of such an approach requires a sound foundation of epidemiological data. This study estimates for the first time, using national data, total and type-specific official maltreatment risks while simultaneously considering environmental poverty and race/ethnicity. Methods: National official maltreatment data (2009–13) were linked to census data. We used additive mixed models to estimate race/ethnicity-specific rates of official maltreatment (total and subtypes) as a function of county-level child poverty rates. The additive model coupled with the multilevel design provided empirically sound estimates while handling both curvilinearity and the nested data structure. Results: With increasing county child poverty rates, total and type-specific official maltreatment rates increased in all race/ethnicity groups. At similar poverty...

    Background: Child maltreatment is a pressing social problem in the USA and internationally. There are increasing calls for the use of a public health approach to child maltreatment, but the effective adoption of such an approach requires a sound foundation of epidemiological data. This study estimates for the first time, using national data, total and type-specific official maltreatment risks while simultaneously considering environmental poverty and race/ethnicity. Methods: National official maltreatment data (2009–13) were linked to census data. We used additive mixed models to estimate race/ethnicity-specific rates of official maltreatment (total and subtypes) as a function of county-level child poverty rates. The additive model coupled with the multilevel design provided empirically sound estimates while handling both curvilinearity and the nested data structure. Results: With increasing county child poverty rates, total and type-specific official maltreatment rates increased in all race/ethnicity groups. At similar poverty levels, White maltreatment rates trended higher than Blacks and Hispanics showed lower rates, especially where the data were most sufficient. For example, at the 25% poverty level, total maltreatment report rates were 6.91% [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.43%–7.40%] for Whites, 6.30% (5.50%–7.11%) for Blacks and 3.32% (2.88%–3.76%) for Hispanics. Conclusions: We find strong positive associations between official child maltreatment and environmental poverty in all race/ethnicity groups. Our data suggest that Black/White disproportionality in official maltreatment is largely driven by Black/White differences in poverty. Our findings also support the presence of a ‘Hispanic paradox’ in official maltreatment, where Hispanics have lower risks compared with similarly economically situated Whites and Blacks. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bhatt, Chintan B. ; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Objectives. To explore the effect of Medicaid expansion on US infant mortality rate.

    Methods. We examined data from 2010 to 2016 and 2014 to 2016 to compare infant mortality rates in states and Washington, DC, that accepted the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion (Medicaid expansion states) and states that did not (non–Medicaid expansion states), stratifying data by race/ethnicity.

    Results. Mean infant mortality rate in non–Medicaid expansion states rose (6.4 to 6.5) from 2014 to 2016 but declined in Medicaid expansion states (5.9 to 5.6). Mean difference in infant mortality rate in Medicaid expansion versus non–Medicaid expansion states increased from 0.573 (P = .08) in 2014 to 0.838 in 2016 (P = .006) because of smaller declines in non–Medicaid expansion (11.0%) than in Medicaid expansion (15.2%) states. The 14.5% infant mortality rate decline from 11.7 to 10.0 in African American infants in Medicaid expansion states was more than twice that in non–Medicaid expansion states (6.6%: 12.2 to 11.4; P = .012).

    Conclusions....

    Objectives. To explore the effect of Medicaid expansion on US infant mortality rate.

    Methods. We examined data from 2010 to 2016 and 2014 to 2016 to compare infant mortality rates in states and Washington, DC, that accepted the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion (Medicaid expansion states) and states that did not (non–Medicaid expansion states), stratifying data by race/ethnicity.

    Results. Mean infant mortality rate in non–Medicaid expansion states rose (6.4 to 6.5) from 2014 to 2016 but declined in Medicaid expansion states (5.9 to 5.6). Mean difference in infant mortality rate in Medicaid expansion versus non–Medicaid expansion states increased from 0.573 (P = .08) in 2014 to 0.838 in 2016 (P = .006) because of smaller declines in non–Medicaid expansion (11.0%) than in Medicaid expansion (15.2%) states. The 14.5% infant mortality rate decline from 11.7 to 10.0 in African American infants in Medicaid expansion states was more than twice that in non–Medicaid expansion states (6.6%: 12.2 to 11.4; P = .012).

    Conclusions. Infant mortality rate decline was greater in Medicaid expansion states, with greater declines among African American infants. Future research should explore what aspects of Medicaid expansion may improve infant survival. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Mattingly, Marybeth J.; Schaefer, Andrew; Gagnon, Douglas J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    The mathematics of poverty suggest that family composition changes may influence poverty rates and, in particular, that the addition of a new child increases estimated family expenses and correspondingly the family’s poverty threshold. This analysis of 2015 Current Population Survey data finds that those families more likely to live in poverty—Black and Hispanic families, families with children, less-educated families, and those living in more rural or highly urban environments—are at heightened risk of falling into poverty with an additional child. (Author abstract)

    The mathematics of poverty suggest that family composition changes may influence poverty rates and, in particular, that the addition of a new child increases estimated family expenses and correspondingly the family’s poverty threshold. This analysis of 2015 Current Population Survey data finds that those families more likely to live in poverty—Black and Hispanic families, families with children, less-educated families, and those living in more rural or highly urban environments—are at heightened risk of falling into poverty with an additional child. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Martinson, Karin; Copson, Elizabeth; Gardiner, Karen; Kitrosser, Daniel
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous...

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous research design, the study found that the Carreras en Salud program increased hours of occupational training and basic skills instruction received and the attainment of education credentials within an 18-month follow-up period. The program also increased employment in the healthcare field and resulted in a reduction of participants reporting financial hardship. Future reports will examine whether these effects translate into gains in employment and earnings. (Author introduction)

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