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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Wheaton, Laura; Lynch, Victoria; Johnson, Martha C.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This report examines the overlap in eligibility of children and nonelderly adults for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Medicaid/Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) benefits in 2013, prior to Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act. We find that over half of children eligible for one program were eligible for both, and nearly all of the remaining children were eligible for Medicaid/CHIP. A substantially smaller share of parents and nonparents were eligible for both SNAP and Medicaid/CHIP. The report also provides state-level estimates to allow calculation of state joint program participation rates. (Author abstract)

    This report examines the overlap in eligibility of children and nonelderly adults for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Medicaid/Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) benefits in 2013, prior to Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act. We find that over half of children eligible for one program were eligible for both, and nearly all of the remaining children were eligible for Medicaid/CHIP. A substantially smaller share of parents and nonparents were eligible for both SNAP and Medicaid/CHIP. The report also provides state-level estimates to allow calculation of state joint program participation rates. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Brown, Scott R.; Shinn, Marybeth; Khadduri, Jill
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This brief examines the well-being of young children 20 months after staying in emergency homeless shelters with their families.

    Using data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Family Options Study, the brief explores young children’s:

    •pre-reading skills

    •pre-math skills

    •developmental delays

    •behavior challenges

    It draws comparisons between children who experienced homelessness and national norms for children of the same age.

    The brief also examines housing instability, child care instability, and enrollment in center-based care and Head Start, and associations between housing and child care stability and child well-being. (Author abstract)

    This brief examines the well-being of young children 20 months after staying in emergency homeless shelters with their families.

    Using data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Family Options Study, the brief explores young children’s:

    •pre-reading skills

    •pre-math skills

    •developmental delays

    •behavior challenges

    It draws comparisons between children who experienced homelessness and national norms for children of the same age.

    The brief also examines housing instability, child care instability, and enrollment in center-based care and Head Start, and associations between housing and child care stability and child well-being. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Abdi, Fadumo; Lantos, Hannah
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2017

    Posted by Fadumo Abdi and Hannah Lantos, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse Staff

    Disconnected youth are broadly defined as individuals between the ages of 16 and 24 who are neither in school nor working. Some, including those that are more likely to be chronically disconnected, may face additional challenges as a result of complicated risk factors such as poor mental...

    Posted by Fadumo Abdi and Hannah Lantos, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse Staff

    Disconnected youth are broadly defined as individuals between the ages of 16 and 24 who are neither in school nor working. Some, including those that are more likely to be chronically disconnected, may face additional challenges as a result of complicated risk factors such as poor mental health, a history of involvement with the juvenile justice system or familial incarceration, being a member of a minority group, low academic achievement, or family poverty. The combination of these factors create barriers for youth to connect to education or, without education credentials, find employment, which further impedes their path to a self-sufficient adulthood.

    It is currently estimated that there are between 5.5 and 6.7 million youth who are neither working nor in school. This represents approximately 15 to 17 percent of the American youth population. Minorities, particularly minority males, are overrepresented among disconnected youth. Currently, the policy and practice literature doesn’t provide a universal definition of disconnected youth that is inclusive of the diverse population making estimations of the numbers of youth impacted by disconnection difficult. Youth who belong to other groups such as the LGBTQ population, youth who are aging out of foster care or have left the system, and youth who have been engaged with the juvenile justice system. Youth who are a part of these groups are vulnerable, at-risk for, or already disconnected and are more likely to experience more complex obstacles when transitioning towards self-sufficiency.

    Traditional indicators of a successful transition to adulthood have included career development, marriage, and parenthood. In the past three decades, these indicators of transition to adulthood have changed over time. Youth have shifted from early participation in the workforce to prolonged enrollment in higher education. Changes in the labor market, such as increased labor-saving technology, and the increasing prevalence of jobs that require a higher level skill set have made it difficult for youth to reach their long term career goals without higher education. The Great Recession of 2007 resulted in widespread increases in unemployment that was more severe for vulnerable populations including youth. Due to these social and workforce shifts, disconnected youth have found it more difficult to achieve self-sufficiency in the face of high unemployment.

    There are a number of initiatives underway that aim to help disconnected youth make a successful transition to adulthood. These programs take into account both the highly complex needs of disconnected youth and their importance to the economy. Intervention and prevention programs aimed at connecting youth to opportunity take four forms: (1) workforce development and skill building programs, (2) behavioral programs that work to prevent disconnection, (3) comprehensive programs which address social support needs and job training, and (4) early prevention programs that aim to re-engage adolescents who have dropped out of school or are at-risk of early drop out by providing counseling, helping to develop social and cognitive skills, and providing academic support services.

    Workforce development programs may vary depending on their target population and the specific outcomes to be achieved but typically includes career development opportunities for high schools students, combine education with vocational training, or target older youth with a greater focus on skills development. There is also a growing recognition that behavioral and mental health issues should be addressed alongside skill building and higher education attainment in order for disconnected youth to be successful long-term. In addition, employers and workforce programs have come to realize the importance of soft skills development, such as communication skills, conflict resolution, and self-regulation, for youth entering the workforce.

    Despite the broad scope of youth disconnection, researchers and practitioners have used common characteristics to describe this population, such as age, educational attainment, length of unemployment, or the socio-economic costs of youth disconnection to identify key factors that may alleviate challenges associated with the highly complex nature of youth disconnection. More evidence on youth disconnection is available now than at any other time in our history which helps to facilitate greater understanding of the challenges disconnected youth face, the extent of youth disconnection locally and nationally, and ultimately the development of better strategies to serve them.

    The SSRC library contains numerous resources and evaluations related to disconnected youth, including:

    For more resources, check out the SSRC Library and subscribe to the SSRC or follow us on Twitter to receive updates about upcoming events, new library materials on self-sufficiency topics of interest to you and more.

  • Individual Author: Hock, Heinrich; Luca, Dara Lee; Kautz, Tim; Stapleton, David
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    We use data from a randomized evaluation of the Job Corps program to understand its impacts for youth with limitations from medical conditions. Job Corps was originally designed for economically disadvantaged youth facing education or employment barriers due to their community living environment. The program provides all enrollees with an integrated package of work-focused supports including general education, vocational training, soft skills development, and ultimately job placement. Our findings provide new information about the program’s impacts for approximately 470 youth with medical limitations (YMLs) included in the 1990s National Job Corps Study. Although YMLs were at greater risk for adverse outcomes relative to other enrollees, the impacts of Job Corps for this group have not been previously assessed. We find positive, large, and significant impacts per participant on self-reported employment and earnings; further, the program significantly reduced their dependence on long-term disability benefits. These estimated per-participant impacts were at least twice the size of...

    We use data from a randomized evaluation of the Job Corps program to understand its impacts for youth with limitations from medical conditions. Job Corps was originally designed for economically disadvantaged youth facing education or employment barriers due to their community living environment. The program provides all enrollees with an integrated package of work-focused supports including general education, vocational training, soft skills development, and ultimately job placement. Our findings provide new information about the program’s impacts for approximately 470 youth with medical limitations (YMLs) included in the 1990s National Job Corps Study. Although YMLs were at greater risk for adverse outcomes relative to other enrollees, the impacts of Job Corps for this group have not been previously assessed. We find positive, large, and significant impacts per participant on self-reported employment and earnings; further, the program significantly reduced their dependence on long-term disability benefits. These estimated per-participant impacts were at least twice the size of the corresponding impacts for other youths who did not have medical limitations at enrollment. Although more research on current program operations is needed, our findings suggest that Job Corps could help meet state and national policy goals for improving adult work outcomes for youth with disabilities and reducing their reliance on disability benefits. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cancian, Maria; Cook, Steven T. ; Seki, Mai; Wimer, Lynn
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Most families in the child protective services system also interact with the child support enforcement system. This study exploits a natural experiment in Wisconsin, created by the state's large regional variation in child support referral policy, to estimate a potentially important effect of child support enforcement on the duration of out-of-home foster care placement. The effect we examine is whether requiring parents to pay support to offset the costs of foster care delays children's reunification with a parent or other permanent placement. We find evidence of this unintended effect, which is important not only because longer foster care spells are expensive for taxpayers, but also because extended placements in foster care may have consequences for child well-being. Our results highlight the potential importance of cross-systems analysis and the potential consequences when the policies and fundamental objectives of public systems are inconsistently coordinated. We discuss the implications of our findings for child support and child protective services policy. (Author...

    Most families in the child protective services system also interact with the child support enforcement system. This study exploits a natural experiment in Wisconsin, created by the state's large regional variation in child support referral policy, to estimate a potentially important effect of child support enforcement on the duration of out-of-home foster care placement. The effect we examine is whether requiring parents to pay support to offset the costs of foster care delays children's reunification with a parent or other permanent placement. We find evidence of this unintended effect, which is important not only because longer foster care spells are expensive for taxpayers, but also because extended placements in foster care may have consequences for child well-being. Our results highlight the potential importance of cross-systems analysis and the potential consequences when the policies and fundamental objectives of public systems are inconsistently coordinated. We discuss the implications of our findings for child support and child protective services policy. (Author abstract)

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