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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Rangarajan, Anu; Schochet, Peter; Chu, Dexter
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    One of the most important themes of today’s welfare debate is the goal of moving mothers from welfare to work. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) includes strong incentives for state agencies to move recipients into the labor force. State and local policymakers now express significant interest in the issue of job retention and in designing programs to facilitate job retention or rapid reemployment. Anticipating this need, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services contracted with Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. to provide program operators and policymakers with useful information on issues related to labor force attachment for welfare recipients. In particular, ACF had two broad goals for this study: (1) to provide some benchmarks regarding the employment patterns of welfare recipients who find jobs and the factors associated with job loss or job retention; and (2) to shed light on the feasibility of targeting resources to those who are most likely to have long periods...

    One of the most important themes of today’s welfare debate is the goal of moving mothers from welfare to work. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) includes strong incentives for state agencies to move recipients into the labor force. State and local policymakers now express significant interest in the issue of job retention and in designing programs to facilitate job retention or rapid reemployment. Anticipating this need, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services contracted with Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. to provide program operators and policymakers with useful information on issues related to labor force attachment for welfare recipients. In particular, ACF had two broad goals for this study: (1) to provide some benchmarks regarding the employment patterns of welfare recipients who find jobs and the factors associated with job loss or job retention; and (2) to shed light on the feasibility of targeting resources to those who are most likely to have long periods of nonemployment. This report uses national data to examine the employment experiences of welfare recipients who find jobs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Acs, Gregory; Coe, Norma B.; Watson, Keith; Lerman, Robert I.
    Reference Type: Report, Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1998

    The basic analysis describes how the income of a single parent with two children changes as she moves from not working to working at a part-time job at minimum wage, then to full-time work at minimum wage, and finally to a full-time job paying $9/hour. In calculating income, we consider the family's earnings, its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) grant, the cash value of food stamps it receives, federal and state earned income tax credits, any other state tax credits, and all federal and state tax liabilities. In subsequent analyses, we consider the impact of other public assistance programs such as federal housing assistance, child care subsidies, and Medicaid on work incentives. We then explore how lifetime time limits may affect a family's work-welfare decisions. While we focus on the incentives of welfare recipients to go to work, we also examine how the differential treatment of participants and applicants in benefit determination may affect the decisions of low-income workers to leave work and go on welfare. (author abstract)

    The basic analysis describes how the income of a single parent with two children changes as she moves from not working to working at a part-time job at minimum wage, then to full-time work at minimum wage, and finally to a full-time job paying $9/hour. In calculating income, we consider the family's earnings, its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) grant, the cash value of food stamps it receives, federal and state earned income tax credits, any other state tax credits, and all federal and state tax liabilities. In subsequent analyses, we consider the impact of other public assistance programs such as federal housing assistance, child care subsidies, and Medicaid on work incentives. We then explore how lifetime time limits may affect a family's work-welfare decisions. While we focus on the incentives of welfare recipients to go to work, we also examine how the differential treatment of participants and applicants in benefit determination may affect the decisions of low-income workers to leave work and go on welfare. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Zill, Nicholas; Resnick, Gary; McKey, Ruth Hubbell; Clark, Cheryl; Connell, David C.; Swartz, Janet; O’Brien, Robert; D’Elio, Mary Ann
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    As the nation's premier early childhood education program, Head Start is leading the way in developing and reporting on its accountability for services to approximately 800,000 children and their families each year. From initial planning in 1995 to the publication of this Head Start Performance Measures Second Progress Report, Head Start has made dramatic progress toward the development of an outcome-oriented accountability system. This approach combines the best attributes of scientific research with program-level reporting and monitoring and is based on a consensus-driven set of criteria for program accountability.

    The Head Start Program Performance Measures Initiative is a response to a specific legislative mandate, strategic planning for Head Start, and broader public emphasis on accountability and the general movement toward results-oriented evaluation.

    Specifically the Program Performance Measures were developed in accordance with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion, the mandate of Section 641A (b) of the Head...

    As the nation's premier early childhood education program, Head Start is leading the way in developing and reporting on its accountability for services to approximately 800,000 children and their families each year. From initial planning in 1995 to the publication of this Head Start Performance Measures Second Progress Report, Head Start has made dramatic progress toward the development of an outcome-oriented accountability system. This approach combines the best attributes of scientific research with program-level reporting and monitoring and is based on a consensus-driven set of criteria for program accountability.

    The Head Start Program Performance Measures Initiative is a response to a specific legislative mandate, strategic planning for Head Start, and broader public emphasis on accountability and the general movement toward results-oriented evaluation.

    Specifically the Program Performance Measures were developed in accordance with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion, the mandate of Section 641A (b) of the Head Start Act (42 USC 9831 et seq.) as reauthorized in 1994 and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)(Public Law 103-62). Signed into law in July 1993, the GPRA requires all federally funded programs to improve their performance and accountability. Other efforts taking place at the Federal level include the Chief Financial Officers Act and the Vice President's National Performance Review, both of which added impetus to the development of the Head Start Program Performance Measures. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    This volume is the second annual report presenting an overview of the well-being of America’s children. Prepared by the Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, as required by President Clinton’s Executive Order No. 13045, the report is a product of collaborative efforts by 18 Federal agencies. Readers will find here an accessible compendium—drawn from the most recent, most reliable official statistics—to both the promises and the difficulties confronting our Nation’s young people.

    America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 1998 updates information displayed in last year’s report and incorporates several improvements. For example, four indicators have been expanded to fill gaps identified in last year's report. Other indicators have been renamed to clarify their meaning. These changes implement many of the helpful comments and suggestions for improvements provided by users of the 1997 report.  (author introduction)

    This volume is the second annual report presenting an overview of the well-being of America’s children. Prepared by the Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, as required by President Clinton’s Executive Order No. 13045, the report is a product of collaborative efforts by 18 Federal agencies. Readers will find here an accessible compendium—drawn from the most recent, most reliable official statistics—to both the promises and the difficulties confronting our Nation’s young people.

    America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 1998 updates information displayed in last year’s report and incorporates several improvements. For example, four indicators have been expanded to fill gaps identified in last year's report. Other indicators have been renamed to clarify their meaning. These changes implement many of the helpful comments and suggestions for improvements provided by users of the 1997 report.  (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Vroman, Wayne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    One goal of welfare reform is to move larger numbers of welfare recipients into work. If the aims of the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation are achieved, by 1998 more than a quarter of the roughly 4 million adults who received Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) will be active labor market participants, and half are slated to join the workforce by 2002. Many, if not most, will no longer be receiving welfare benefits at that time.

    Low education and lack of work skills and experience put current and former welfare recipients at special risk of unemployment. The national unemployment rate for persons 16 and older in the labor force averaged only 4.9 percent in 1997, but former welfare recipients can be expected to have jobless rates that are twice the national average.

    Nonetheless, the anticipated increase in the unemployment pool resulting from welfare reform is modest. Because of low earnings and other factors, only a small fraction of adult welfare recipients who enter the labor market will become eligible for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits...

    One goal of welfare reform is to move larger numbers of welfare recipients into work. If the aims of the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation are achieved, by 1998 more than a quarter of the roughly 4 million adults who received Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) will be active labor market participants, and half are slated to join the workforce by 2002. Many, if not most, will no longer be receiving welfare benefits at that time.

    Low education and lack of work skills and experience put current and former welfare recipients at special risk of unemployment. The national unemployment rate for persons 16 and older in the labor force averaged only 4.9 percent in 1997, but former welfare recipients can be expected to have jobless rates that are twice the national average.

    Nonetheless, the anticipated increase in the unemployment pool resulting from welfare reform is modest. Because of low earnings and other factors, only a small fraction of adult welfare recipients who enter the labor market will become eligible for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits under current rules. Moreover, neither federal nor state laws governing eligibility are likely to change in ways that will enhance access to unemployment benefits for unemployed former welfare recipients. Thus, these new workers’ impact on the UI system, in terms of added beneficiaries and costs, will be hardly noticeable. (author introduction)

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