Skip to main content
Back to Top

SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Lane, Julia; Mikelson, Kelly S.; Sharkey, Patrick T.; Wissoker, Douglas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The role of alternative work arrangements — temporary help, independent contractors, on-call workers, and contract company workers — has caught the attention of both policy makers and academic researchers alike. Current research indicates that 1 in 10 workers are employed in one of these four alternative work arrangements and employment in the temporary help services industry grew five times as fast as overall non-farm employment between 1972 and 1997.

    This growth is likely to have important implications for low-income workers, particularly since the establishment of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, authorized by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, which dramatically transformed the nation's welfare system. This welfare reform, in conjunction with a strong economy, has resulted in an increasing number of low-income individuals entering the labor force. Thus, alternative work arrangements, especially for those with limited work histories, might be expected to be a natural pathway to work for...

    The role of alternative work arrangements — temporary help, independent contractors, on-call workers, and contract company workers — has caught the attention of both policy makers and academic researchers alike. Current research indicates that 1 in 10 workers are employed in one of these four alternative work arrangements and employment in the temporary help services industry grew five times as fast as overall non-farm employment between 1972 and 1997.

    This growth is likely to have important implications for low-income workers, particularly since the establishment of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, authorized by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, which dramatically transformed the nation's welfare system. This welfare reform, in conjunction with a strong economy, has resulted in an increasing number of low-income individuals entering the labor force. Thus, alternative work arrangements, especially for those with limited work histories, might be expected to be a natural pathway to work for such workers. However, little is known about the prevalence of alternative work arrangements as a gateway into the labor force or the resulting labor market outcomes for low-income workers and those at risk of welfare dependency. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Crouse, Gil; Hauan, Susan; Isaacs, Julia; Lyon, Matt
    Year: 2001

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence.  This 2001 Indicators of Welfare Dependence, the fourth annual report, is the first report to provide welfare dependency indicators for the 1996-1998 period, reflecting changes that have taken place since enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August 1996.  As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, now the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program; the Food Stamp Program; and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Welfare dependence, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration.  Families may be more or less dependent if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs.  The amount of time over which families depend on welfare might also be considered in...

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence.  This 2001 Indicators of Welfare Dependence, the fourth annual report, is the first report to provide welfare dependency indicators for the 1996-1998 period, reflecting changes that have taken place since enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August 1996.  As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, now the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program; the Food Stamp Program; and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Welfare dependence, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration.  Families may be more or less dependent if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs.  The amount of time over which families depend on welfare might also be considered in assessing their degree of dependency.  Although recognizing the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring dependence, the bipartisan Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators proposed the following definition, as one measure to examine in concert with other key indicators of dependence and deprivation:

    • A family is dependent on welfare if more than 50 percent of its total income in a one-year period comes from AFDC/TANF, food stamps and/or SSI, and this welfare income is not associated with work activities.  Welfare dependence is the proportion of all families who are dependent on welfare.

    The proposed definition is difficult to measure because of limitations with existing data collection efforts.  Most importantly, the available data do not distinguish between cash benefits where work is required and non-work-related cash benefits.  In addition, there are time lags in the availability of the national data from the detailed surveys that may be best suited to measure dependence.  This 2001 report uses data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and administrative data to provide updated measures through 1998 for several dependency indicators, a significant update from the 1995 measures reported last year.  Other measures are based on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and other data sources.  Drawing on these various data sources, this report provides a number of key indicators of welfare recipiency, dependence, and labor force attachment.  Selected highlights from the many findings in the report include the following...

    Since the causes of welfare receipt and dependence are not clearly known, the report also includes a larger set of risk factors associated with welfare receipt.  The risk factors are loosely organized into three categories:  economic security measures, measures related to employment and barriers to employment, and measures of nonmarital childbearing.  The economic security risk factors include measures of poverty and deprivation that are important not only as predictors of dependence, but also as a supplement to the dependence indicators, ensuring that dependence measures are not assessed in isolation.  It is important to examine whether decreases in dependency are accompanied by improvements in family economic status or by reductions in family material circumstances.  The report includes data on the official poverty rate, one of the most common measures of deprivation...

    Finally, the report has four appendices that provide additional program data on major welfare programs, as well as alternative measures of dependency, additional data on non-marital births, and further information about data sources in this year’s report. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Clancy, Margaret; Grinstein-Weiss, Michael; Schreiner, Mark
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    This study is the first quantitative look at the effects of financial education on savings outcomes for the poor in Individual Development Accounts. The findings suggest that financial education has sizeable effects, and that courses need not be long to take advantage of them. Marketing and public-policy implications are noted. (author abstract)

    This study is the first quantitative look at the effects of financial education on savings outcomes for the poor in Individual Development Accounts. The findings suggest that financial education has sizeable effects, and that courses need not be long to take advantage of them. Marketing and public-policy implications are noted. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Government Accountability Office
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The Congress passed PRWORA in 1996, making sweeping changes to national welfare policy. The act replaces the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with TANF block grants, a fixed federal funding stream that provides states the flexibility to design their own programs and strategies for promoting work and self-sufficiency. Under TANF there are strong work requirements for recipients and there is a limit on the number of months (60) that families can receive federally funded TANF benefits. The number of families receiving cash assistance has declined dramatically in recent years. More than 5 million families received cash assistance in 1994 but, as the economy improved and TANF work enforcement gathered steam, fewer families received assistance. Caseloads have fallen dramatically since the act went into effect, from 4.4 million families in August 1996 to 2.2 families in June 2000. Caseload declines slowed towards the end of 1999 and in a few states rose slightly, but the most recent data available from HHS indicate that, nationally, caseloads continue to decline....

    The Congress passed PRWORA in 1996, making sweeping changes to national welfare policy. The act replaces the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with TANF block grants, a fixed federal funding stream that provides states the flexibility to design their own programs and strategies for promoting work and self-sufficiency. Under TANF there are strong work requirements for recipients and there is a limit on the number of months (60) that families can receive federally funded TANF benefits. The number of families receiving cash assistance has declined dramatically in recent years. More than 5 million families received cash assistance in 1994 but, as the economy improved and TANF work enforcement gathered steam, fewer families received assistance. Caseloads have fallen dramatically since the act went into effect, from 4.4 million families in August 1996 to 2.2 families in June 2000. Caseload declines slowed towards the end of 1999 and in a few states rose slightly, but the most recent data available from HHS indicate that, nationally, caseloads continue to decline. Though there are no supporting data, many assume that as caseloads have fallen the composition of the caseload has changed. Specifically, some have speculated that those TANF recipients who could easily find and keep jobs have left the rolls, and hard-to-employ recipients-those with characteristics that interfere with employment-comprise an increasing share of the remaining cash assistance recipients. As a result, there is some concern that state programs that may have been effective at moving easier-to-employ recipients into the workforce may not meet the needs of those remaining on the rolls. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda; Francis, Judith; Henrici, Jane; Lein, Laura; Quane, James; Bogen, Karen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Seventeen percent of a sample of current and recent welfare recipients in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio reported that their benefits had been reduced or stopped because the welfare office said they weren’t following the rules. These penalties resulted from both partial and full-family sanctions as well as from case closings for procedural reasons. Recipients reported that the most common reasons were missing an appointment or failing to file required paperwork. Only 12 percent of the penalties were imposed for failing to take a job or to show up for a job-related activity. Individuals whose benefits were reduced or stopped were more disadvantaged than other recipients in many respects, such as education, health, financial difficulties, housing quality, and neighborhood quality. Former recipients who reported leaving the welfare rolls because of sanctions or case closings had substantially lower employment rates and earnings than did those who left for other reasons. These findings suggest that agencies and organizations may wish to give more attention to families at imminent...

    Seventeen percent of a sample of current and recent welfare recipients in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio reported that their benefits had been reduced or stopped because the welfare office said they weren’t following the rules. These penalties resulted from both partial and full-family sanctions as well as from case closings for procedural reasons. Recipients reported that the most common reasons were missing an appointment or failing to file required paperwork. Only 12 percent of the penalties were imposed for failing to take a job or to show up for a job-related activity. Individuals whose benefits were reduced or stopped were more disadvantaged than other recipients in many respects, such as education, health, financial difficulties, housing quality, and neighborhood quality. Former recipients who reported leaving the welfare rolls because of sanctions or case closings had substantially lower employment rates and earnings than did those who left for other reasons. These findings suggest that agencies and organizations may wish to give more attention to families at imminent risk of sanctions or case closings to help them come into compliance. They also suggest that families who leave welfare due to noncompliance may need more assistance in finding and retaining employment. (author abstract)

Sort by

Topical Area(s)

Popular Searches

Source

Year

Year ranges from 1976 to 2019

Reference Type

Research Methodology

Geographic Focus

Target Populations