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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Guo, Baorong; Huang, Jin; Porterfield, Shirley L.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Young adults face enormous economic, social and psychological challenges when they transition into adulthood. This transition can be especially overwhelming and daunting for young adults with disabilities. Among the challenges young adults with disabilities are faced with are greater risk of low food security and barriers to healthcare. This study examines how the transition to adulthood may affect food security, health, and access to healthcare for youth with disabilities, and estimates the effects that SNAP has on this group in those turbulent years.

    The study used five years of data (2011-2015) from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We combined the public and restricted NHIS data with the state SNAP policy variables. The sample included low-income individuals ages 13-25 (and their families) to reflect the life stage from pre-transition, to transition, and then to post-transition. Analyses were conducted at the Census Research Data Center in Columbia, MO. A difference-in-difference (DID) approach in linear models was applied to compare individuals with and...

    Young adults face enormous economic, social and psychological challenges when they transition into adulthood. This transition can be especially overwhelming and daunting for young adults with disabilities. Among the challenges young adults with disabilities are faced with are greater risk of low food security and barriers to healthcare. This study examines how the transition to adulthood may affect food security, health, and access to healthcare for youth with disabilities, and estimates the effects that SNAP has on this group in those turbulent years.

    The study used five years of data (2011-2015) from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We combined the public and restricted NHIS data with the state SNAP policy variables. The sample included low-income individuals ages 13-25 (and their families) to reflect the life stage from pre-transition, to transition, and then to post-transition. Analyses were conducted at the Census Research Data Center in Columbia, MO. A difference-in-difference (DID) approach in linear models was applied to compare individuals with and without disabilities regarding changes in food security status and their health-related outcomes in the transition to adulthood. State SNAP policy variables were used as exogenous instruments to estimate the effects of SNAP participation on food security and health/healthcare use for youth and young adults with disabilities in the models of instrumental variables.

    The study’s limitations are closely examined with a focus on the constraints that we had in the DID analysis and the IV analysis. We also suggested directions for future research. Since food security likely has a profound impact on the long-term development, economic independence, and self-sufficiency, we discussed a few policy strategies that may help individuals with disabilities in their transition to adulthood. These include special outreach services to improve SNAP accessibility, an embedded alert system that serves to bring awareness of a SNAP participant’s upcoming transition to adulthood, incorporation of nutrition assistance in transition planning for youth, and better coordination of multiple public programs. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wang, Wendy; Wilcox, W. Bradford
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    The rise of nontraditional routes into parenthood among Millennials is one indicator that today’s young adults are taking increasingly divergent paths toward adulthood, including family formation. In fact, when it comes to family formation, overall only 40% of young adults ages 28 to 34 have moved into family life by marrying first (regardless of whether they have had any children). Another 33% have had children outside of or before marriage, and a significant share (27%) have not reached either of these traditional milestones of adulthood. By comparison, a majority of Baby Boomers (67%) had entered intofamily life at the same age by marrying first. A much smaller share had children before marrying (20%), or had delayed both parenthood and marriage (13%) at ages 28 to 34...Even though young men and women are taking increasingly divergent paths into adulthood in America today, panel data that tracks adults across the transition to adulthood indicate that the path most likely to be associated with realizing the American Dream is one guided by the success sequence. Given the...

    The rise of nontraditional routes into parenthood among Millennials is one indicator that today’s young adults are taking increasingly divergent paths toward adulthood, including family formation. In fact, when it comes to family formation, overall only 40% of young adults ages 28 to 34 have moved into family life by marrying first (regardless of whether they have had any children). Another 33% have had children outside of or before marriage, and a significant share (27%) have not reached either of these traditional milestones of adulthood. By comparison, a majority of Baby Boomers (67%) had entered intofamily life at the same age by marrying first. A much smaller share had children before marrying (20%), or had delayed both parenthood and marriage (13%) at ages 28 to 34...Even though young men and women are taking increasingly divergent paths into adulthood in America today, panel data that tracks adults across the transition to adulthood indicate that the path most likely to be associated with realizing the American Dream is one guided by the success sequence. Given the importance of education, work, and marriage—even for a generation that has taken increasingly circuitous routes into adulthood—policy makers, business leaders, and civic leaders should work to advance public policies and cultural changes to make this sequence both more attainable and more valued. Among other things, this should include public and private efforts to strengthen career and technical education, expand the EITC or other wage subsidies, and publicize the value of the “success sequence” to adolescents and young adults across America. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Sharkova, Irina V.; Lucenko, Barbara; Felver, Barbara E. M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This study examined Independent Living (IL) services for youth in foster care in Washington State in 2014-2015. These services are designed to assist youth in making the transition from foster care to self-sufficiency and include educational support, employment preparation, financial assistance, and life skills training. A total of 1,649 youth aged 16 to 21 years participated in at least one IL service provided by IL services contractors, social workers, and tribal partners between October 1, 2014 and September 30, 2015. This represented 30 percent of all eligible youth in the state (5,604). Youth receiving IL services were concentrated in large urban counties; these counties also served a higher proportion of their eligible youth than rural and remote counties. We found that the youth in foster care received significantly more IL services than the youth not in foster care at every age. Demographic differences among IL participants largely reflected different risk factors faced by the youth, their preferences, and changing needs as the youth grew older. However, some services...

    This study examined Independent Living (IL) services for youth in foster care in Washington State in 2014-2015. These services are designed to assist youth in making the transition from foster care to self-sufficiency and include educational support, employment preparation, financial assistance, and life skills training. A total of 1,649 youth aged 16 to 21 years participated in at least one IL service provided by IL services contractors, social workers, and tribal partners between October 1, 2014 and September 30, 2015. This represented 30 percent of all eligible youth in the state (5,604). Youth receiving IL services were concentrated in large urban counties; these counties also served a higher proportion of their eligible youth than rural and remote counties. We found that the youth in foster care received significantly more IL services than the youth not in foster care at every age. Demographic differences among IL participants largely reflected different risk factors faced by the youth, their preferences, and changing needs as the youth grew older. However, some services that dropped off for older youth could have been beneficial to them. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    In recent years, policymakers and youth advocates have focused greater attention on young people who are neither working nor in school. Generally characterized as "disconnected," these youth may also lack strong social networks that provide assistance in the form of employment connections and other supports such as housing and financial assistance. Without attachment to work or school, disconnected youth may be vulnerable to experiencing negative outcomes as they transition to adulthood. The purpose of the report is to provide context for Congress about the characteristics of disconnected youth, and the circumstances in which they live. These data may be useful as Congress considers policies to retain students in high school and to provide opportunities for youth to obtain job training and employment. Like the existing research, the CRS analysis finds that a greater share of minority youth, particularly black males, are disconnected, and that their rates of disconnection have been higher over time. The analysis evaluates some other characteristics that have not been widely...

    In recent years, policymakers and youth advocates have focused greater attention on young people who are neither working nor in school. Generally characterized as "disconnected," these youth may also lack strong social networks that provide assistance in the form of employment connections and other supports such as housing and financial assistance. Without attachment to work or school, disconnected youth may be vulnerable to experiencing negative outcomes as they transition to adulthood. The purpose of the report is to provide context for Congress about the characteristics of disconnected youth, and the circumstances in which they live. These data may be useful as Congress considers policies to retain students in high school and to provide opportunities for youth to obtain job training and employment. Like the existing research, the CRS analysis finds that a greater share of minority youth, particularly black males, are disconnected, and that their rates of disconnection have been higher over time. The analysis evaluates some other characteristics that have not been widely studied in the existing research. For instance, compared to their peers in the general population, disconnected youth tend to have fewer years of education, and are more likely to live apart from their parents and (if they married to a disconnected spouse or are not married) to have children. Disconnected youth are also twice as likely to be poor than their connected peers. The analysis further finds that the parents of disconnected youth are more likely than their counterparts to be unemployed and to have lower educational attainment. (author summary)

  • Individual Author: Bradley, M. C.; Lansing, Jiffy; Stagner, Matthew
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2013

    Promising occupations for at-risk youth provide sufficient compensation and could put them on a path to becoming independent adults. To identify promising occupations, this brief examined four key features: 1) median earnings level, 2) education and training pre-requisites, 3) projected growth in labor-market demand, and 4) potential for individual advancement. Based on these criteria, opportunities in two fields are highlighted – health care and construction.  A number of work-based learning and career pathway programs are also discussed, including ACF’s Health Profession Opportunity Grants program. This brief was written as part of ACF’s Youth Demonstration Development project being conducted by Mathematica Policy Research and the Chapin Hall Center for Children. (author abstract)

    Promising occupations for at-risk youth provide sufficient compensation and could put them on a path to becoming independent adults. To identify promising occupations, this brief examined four key features: 1) median earnings level, 2) education and training pre-requisites, 3) projected growth in labor-market demand, and 4) potential for individual advancement. Based on these criteria, opportunities in two fields are highlighted – health care and construction.  A number of work-based learning and career pathway programs are also discussed, including ACF’s Health Profession Opportunity Grants program. This brief was written as part of ACF’s Youth Demonstration Development project being conducted by Mathematica Policy Research and the Chapin Hall Center for Children. (author abstract)

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