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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Thiebaud Nicoli, Lisa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    In this brief, we provide a snapshot of what work sanctions look like in Maryland today. Focusing on cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find that 60% of cases subject to the work requirement received at least one work sanction during that year. Maryland’s most severe work sanction, which closes the case for 30 days, is also the most common sanction. Of cases that received a work sanction, one in four had at least one more work sanction during the same year. (Author abstract)

    In this brief, we provide a snapshot of what work sanctions look like in Maryland today. Focusing on cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find that 60% of cases subject to the work requirement received at least one work sanction during that year. Maryland’s most severe work sanction, which closes the case for 30 days, is also the most common sanction. Of cases that received a work sanction, one in four had at least one more work sanction during the same year. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Thiebaud Nicoli, Lisa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    In this brief, we explore differences among Temporary Cash Assistance (TCA) clients with 1-day, 10-day, and 30-day work sanctions. Using the entire population of work-eligible cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find considerable diversity within the work-sanctioned population. Customers with 1-day work sanctions have more advantageous characteristics, such as a greater likelihood of education beyond high school. Customers with 30-day sanctions are a distinct population: they were the most likely to return to TCA, and they earned the least, both before receiving TCA and after case closure. (Author abstract)

    In this brief, we explore differences among Temporary Cash Assistance (TCA) clients with 1-day, 10-day, and 30-day work sanctions. Using the entire population of work-eligible cases that closed between October 2013 and September 2014, we find considerable diversity within the work-sanctioned population. Customers with 1-day work sanctions have more advantageous characteristics, such as a greater likelihood of education beyond high school. Customers with 30-day sanctions are a distinct population: they were the most likely to return to TCA, and they earned the least, both before receiving TCA and after case closure. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Born, Catherine; Kolupanowich, Nicholas; Ovwigho, Pamela
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    This report, part of our Life after Welfare series, fills in some gaps in our knowledge about full family sanctions. Using a wealth of administrative data, including up to nine years of follow up data on employment and earnings, we present information on the characteristics and outcomes of 15,259 families that exited Maryland’s welfare rolls between April 1998 and March 2008. We compare the characteristics and outcomes of those whose cases were closed because of a full family sanction for non-compliance with work (n = 2,770) to those who exited for other reasons (n = 12,094). We also present data separately for families whose cases closed because of a full-family sanction for non-cooperation with child support (n = 395). Our research findings are briefly summarized in the following bullets:

    • Demographics
    • Core Caseload Designation
    • SSI Applications
    • TANF History
    • Employment History
    • Employment Outcomes
    • TANF Recidivism
    • Combined TANF & Employment Outcomes
    • Child Support Outcomes
    • Other Work...

    This report, part of our Life after Welfare series, fills in some gaps in our knowledge about full family sanctions. Using a wealth of administrative data, including up to nine years of follow up data on employment and earnings, we present information on the characteristics and outcomes of 15,259 families that exited Maryland’s welfare rolls between April 1998 and March 2008. We compare the characteristics and outcomes of those whose cases were closed because of a full family sanction for non-compliance with work (n = 2,770) to those who exited for other reasons (n = 12,094). We also present data separately for families whose cases closed because of a full-family sanction for non-cooperation with child support (n = 395). Our research findings are briefly summarized in the following bullets:

    • Demographics
    • Core Caseload Designation
    • SSI Applications
    • TANF History
    • Employment History
    • Employment Outcomes
    • TANF Recidivism
    • Combined TANF & Employment Outcomes
    • Child Support Outcomes
    • Other Work Supports

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Monnat, Shannon M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos. (Author abstract)

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cheng, Tyrone C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    This study investigates whether race or ethnicity is a factor that affects the chances of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients receiving three transitional supportive services—child-care subsidy, transitional Medicaid, and transportation/rent assistance—as well as being sanctioned. A sample of 676 adult parents who left TANF in 1998 or 1999 was analyzed with logistic regressions, using a national data set, The National Survey of America's Families (NASF) 1999. The results show that Hispanic recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transportation/rent assistance and that African American recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transitional Medicaid. Also, a state's high percentage of Hispanics reduced recipients' chances of receiving any three transitional support services in that state, and African American recipients were more likely than White recipients to be sanctioned. Transportation/rent assistance was likely to be provided to those who were single parents, and having little work experience was...

    This study investigates whether race or ethnicity is a factor that affects the chances of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients receiving three transitional supportive services—child-care subsidy, transitional Medicaid, and transportation/rent assistance—as well as being sanctioned. A sample of 676 adult parents who left TANF in 1998 or 1999 was analyzed with logistic regressions, using a national data set, The National Survey of America's Families (NASF) 1999. The results show that Hispanic recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transportation/rent assistance and that African American recipients were less likely than White recipients to receive transitional Medicaid. Also, a state's high percentage of Hispanics reduced recipients' chances of receiving any three transitional support services in that state, and African American recipients were more likely than White recipients to be sanctioned. Transportation/rent assistance was likely to be provided to those who were single parents, and having little work experience was most likely a participant's reason for being sanctioned. Policy implications are discussed. (Author abstract)

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