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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Olson, Steve
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2017

    After decades of increases in the obesity rate among U.S. adults and children, the rate recently has dropped among some populations, particularly young children. What are the factors responsible for these changes? How can promising trends be accelerated? What else needs to be known to end the epidemic of obesity in the United States?

    To examine these and other pressing questions, the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions, of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, held a workshop in September 2016. The workshop brought together leaders from business, early care and education, government, health care, and philanthropy to discuss the most promising approaches for the future of obesity prevention and treatment. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. (Author abstract)

    After decades of increases in the obesity rate among U.S. adults and children, the rate recently has dropped among some populations, particularly young children. What are the factors responsible for these changes? How can promising trends be accelerated? What else needs to be known to end the epidemic of obesity in the United States?

    To examine these and other pressing questions, the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions, of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, held a workshop in September 2016. The workshop brought together leaders from business, early care and education, government, health care, and philanthropy to discuss the most promising approaches for the future of obesity prevention and treatment. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kang, Jeehye; Cohen, Philip N.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), this paper examines the association between the presence of co-resident extended kin and children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The paper demonstrates the differential role of extended kin by family structure, as well as across parental immigrant status – specifically, nativity and documentation status. Children in the sample were found to be disadvantaged in extended family households, especially with regard to internalizing behaviors. This disadvantageous association was found mostly among married-parent extended family households, whereas there was no association between the presence of extended kin and behavior problems in children from single-parent families. This pattern emerged more clearly among children of documented immigrants, compared to those with native-born parents and those whose parents were unauthorized immigrants. These findings suggest a need to modify previous theories on extended family living arrangements; they also provide policy implications for immigrant families. (Author...

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), this paper examines the association between the presence of co-resident extended kin and children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The paper demonstrates the differential role of extended kin by family structure, as well as across parental immigrant status – specifically, nativity and documentation status. Children in the sample were found to be disadvantaged in extended family households, especially with regard to internalizing behaviors. This disadvantageous association was found mostly among married-parent extended family households, whereas there was no association between the presence of extended kin and behavior problems in children from single-parent families. This pattern emerged more clearly among children of documented immigrants, compared to those with native-born parents and those whose parents were unauthorized immigrants. These findings suggest a need to modify previous theories on extended family living arrangements; they also provide policy implications for immigrant families. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: The President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Lead exposure has been linked to a number of health effects in children. The United States has made tremendous progress in reducing lead exposure, resulting in lower childhood blood lead levels over time. This progress has resulted, in part, from the enforcement of multiple U.S. regulations and implementation of numerous federal programs that aim to reduce childhood lead exposures or ameliorate its effects.

    Today, about 3.6 million U.S. families with a child under age 6 years live in a home with one or more conditions that can expose their child to levels of lead that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers hazardous. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses a reference level of  5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (ug/dL) to identify children whose blood lead levels are much higher than most children’s levels and recommend initiation of public health actions. Approximately 500,000 children ages 1 to 5 years exceed the reference level, which is based on the U.S. population of children ages 1 to  5 years who are in the highest 2.5%...

    Lead exposure has been linked to a number of health effects in children. The United States has made tremendous progress in reducing lead exposure, resulting in lower childhood blood lead levels over time. This progress has resulted, in part, from the enforcement of multiple U.S. regulations and implementation of numerous federal programs that aim to reduce childhood lead exposures or ameliorate its effects.

    Today, about 3.6 million U.S. families with a child under age 6 years live in a home with one or more conditions that can expose their child to levels of lead that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers hazardous. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses a reference level of  5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (ug/dL) to identify children whose blood lead levels are much higher than most children’s levels and recommend initiation of public health actions. Approximately 500,000 children ages 1 to 5 years exceed the reference level, which is based on the U.S. population of children ages 1 to  5 years who are in the highest 2.5% of children when tested for lead in their blood. However, no safe blood lead level in children has been identified. (Excerpt from author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    Lead is a developmental neurotoxicant, and high blood lead levels (HBLLs) in young children can impair intellectual functioning and cause behavioral problems that last a lifetime. Primary prevention of HBLLs remains a national priority and is the only effective way to prevent the neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormalities associated with lead exposure. Unfortunately, hundreds of thousands of children already have experienced blood lead levels known to impair academic performance. To ensure that such children are provided with the services that may help improve academic and other outcomes, in 2008 the CDC Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention convened a work group charged with describing specific action steps parents, clinicians, educators, lead poisoning prevention programs, and others who work with children may be able to take to ensure that children affected by lead receive timely and appropriate educational interventions. This report was drafted by these experts, who were chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise and reflects their...

    Lead is a developmental neurotoxicant, and high blood lead levels (HBLLs) in young children can impair intellectual functioning and cause behavioral problems that last a lifetime. Primary prevention of HBLLs remains a national priority and is the only effective way to prevent the neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormalities associated with lead exposure. Unfortunately, hundreds of thousands of children already have experienced blood lead levels known to impair academic performance. To ensure that such children are provided with the services that may help improve academic and other outcomes, in 2008 the CDC Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention convened a work group charged with describing specific action steps parents, clinicians, educators, lead poisoning prevention programs, and others who work with children may be able to take to ensure that children affected by lead receive timely and appropriate educational interventions. This report was drafted by these experts, who were chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise and reflects their insight, knowledge, and practical expertise. The body of evidence cited in this document demonstrates the effects that low-level lead exposure has on the brain’s learning systems: overall intellectual ability, speech and language, hearing, visual-spatial skills, attention, executive functions, social behavior, and fine and gross motor skills. It details the significant negative consequences of lead on learning and educational attainment found in study after study (see Table 1) and the costs associated with those consequences. It describes the challenges children face as they advance through the school system and how lead interferes with development and learning. (Excerpt from executive summary) 

  • Individual Author: Duncan, Greg; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Aber, J. Lawrence
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between...

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As the essays demonstrate, poverty entails a host of problems that affects the quality of educational, recreational, and child care services. Poor neighborhoods usually share other negative features—particularly racial segregation and a preponderance of single mother families—that may adversely affect children. Yet children are not equally susceptible to the pitfalls of deprived communities. Neighborhood has different effects depending on a child's age, race, and gender, while parenting techniques and a family's degree of community involvement also serve as mitigating factors.

    Volume II incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The contributors point to promising community initiatives and suggest methods to strengthen neighborhood-based service programs for children. Several essays analyze the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the measurement of neighborhood characteristics. These essays focus on the need to expand scientific insight into urban poverty by drawing on broader pools of ethnographic, epidemiological, and quantitative data. Volume II explores the possibilities for a richer and more well-rounded understanding of neighborhood and poverty issues.

    To grasp the human cost of poverty, we must clearly understand how living in distressed neighborhoods impairs children's ability to function at every level. Neighborhood Poverty explores the multiple and complex paths between community, family, and childhood development. These two volumes provide and indispensable guide for social policy and demonstrate the power of interdisciplinary social science to probe complex social issues. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents

    Introduction - Martha Gephart and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    Chapter 1: Neighborhoods and Communities as Contexts for Development - Martha Gephart

    Chapter 2: Development in Context: Implications for Studying Neighborhood Effects - J. Lawrence Aber, Martha Gephart, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and James Connell

    Chapter 3: Neighborhood Models and Measures - Greg Duncan and J. Lawrence Aber

    Chapter 4: Neighborhood and Family Influences on the Intellectual and Behavioral Competence of Preschool and Early School-Age Children - P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Rachel Gordon, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Pamela Klebanov

    Chapter 5: Are Neighborhood Effects on Young Children Mediated by Features of the Home Environment? - Pamela Klebanov, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, and Rachel Gordon

    Chapter 6: Neighborhood and Family Factors Predicting Educational Risk and Attainment in African American and White Children and Adolescents - Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, James Connell, Margaret Beale Spencer, J. Lawrence Aber, Greg Duncan, Elizabeth Clifford, Warren Crichlow, Peter Usinger, Steven Cole, LaRue Allen, and Edward Seidman

    Chapter 7: How Neighborhoods Affect Educational Outcomes in Middle Childhood and Adolescence: Conceptual Issues and an Empirical Example - James Connell and Bonnie Halpern-Felsher

    Chapter 8: Neighborhood and Family Influences on Young Urban Adolescents' Behavior Problems: A Multisample, Multisite Analysis - Margaret Beale Spencer, Steven Cole, Stephanie Jones, and Dena Phillips Swanson

    Chapter 9: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Estimating Casual Effects of Neighborhoods and Family Conditions on Individual Development - Greg Duncan, James Connell, and Pamela Klebanov 

    Chapter 10: Neighborhood Effects and Federal Policy - Jeffrey Lehman and Timothy Smeeding 

    Chapter 11: Lessons Learned and Future Directions for Research on the Neighborhoods in Which Children Live - Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Greg Duncan, Tama Leventhal, and J. Lawrence Aber

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