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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Reeves, Richard V.; Krause, Eleanor
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    We argue in Part 1 of this paper that maternal depression is an under-acknowledged factor in the intergenerational transmission of poverty, and lack of economic mobility. Specifically, we show that:

    I. Poverty increases the risk of maternal depression;

    II. Maternal depression can weaken attachment;

    III. Weaker attachment can impair child development;

    IV. Slower development can damage child outcomes; and

    V. Worse child outcomes can increase the risk of future poverty.

    Since our focus here is on the role of the mental health of caregivers in the very early years, we spend more time on these particular links in the chain. The other links—for instance, between child and adult outcomes—are treated only briefly, with pointers to the broader literature. In Part 2 we draw out some policy approaches to breaking the cycle at each point. This is an area where a “two-generation” approach may pay dividends. Specifically, we suggest policies to:

    I. Reduce poverty;

    II. Reduce the impact of poverty on depression among caregivers;

    III...

    We argue in Part 1 of this paper that maternal depression is an under-acknowledged factor in the intergenerational transmission of poverty, and lack of economic mobility. Specifically, we show that:

    I. Poverty increases the risk of maternal depression;

    II. Maternal depression can weaken attachment;

    III. Weaker attachment can impair child development;

    IV. Slower development can damage child outcomes; and

    V. Worse child outcomes can increase the risk of future poverty.

    Since our focus here is on the role of the mental health of caregivers in the very early years, we spend more time on these particular links in the chain. The other links—for instance, between child and adult outcomes—are treated only briefly, with pointers to the broader literature. In Part 2 we draw out some policy approaches to breaking the cycle at each point. This is an area where a “two-generation” approach may pay dividends. Specifically, we suggest policies to:

    I. Reduce poverty;

    II. Reduce the impact of poverty on depression among caregivers;

    III. Reduce the impact of caregiver depression on early child development; and

    IV. Reduce the impact of weaker early child development on later outcomes.

    (Edited author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Skewes, Monica C.; Blume, Arthur W.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Historians and scholars from various disciplines have documented the pervasive influence of racism on American society and culture, including effects on the health and well-being of American Indian (AI) people. Among the many health problems affected by racial discrimination and oppression, both historical and current, are substance use disorders. Epidemiological studies have documented greater drug and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among AI/AN Alaska Natives compared to other ethnic groups, and culturally appropriate, effective interventions are sorely needed. We collected, as part of a larger community-based participatory research project to address substance use disparities in rural AI communities, qualitative interview data from 25 AI key informants from a frontier reservation in Montana. Using a semistructured interview guide, we asked participants to discuss their perceptions of the causes of substance use problems and barriers to recovery on the reservation. Although no questions specifically asked about discrimination, key informants identified stress from...

    Historians and scholars from various disciplines have documented the pervasive influence of racism on American society and culture, including effects on the health and well-being of American Indian (AI) people. Among the many health problems affected by racial discrimination and oppression, both historical and current, are substance use disorders. Epidemiological studies have documented greater drug and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among AI/AN Alaska Natives compared to other ethnic groups, and culturally appropriate, effective interventions are sorely needed. We collected, as part of a larger community-based participatory research project to address substance use disparities in rural AI communities, qualitative interview data from 25 AI key informants from a frontier reservation in Montana. Using a semistructured interview guide, we asked participants to discuss their perceptions of the causes of substance use problems and barriers to recovery on the reservation. Although no questions specifically asked about discrimination, key informants identified stress from racism as an important precipitant of substance use and barrier to recovery. As one participant stated: “Oppression is the overarching umbrella for all sickness with drugs and alcohol.” Participants also identified historical trauma resulting from colonization as a manifestation of race-based stress that drives behavioral health problems. Findings suggest that interventions for AIs with substance use disorders, and possibly other chronic health problems, may be more effective if they address social determinants of health such as racial discrimination and historical trauma. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Tsethlikai, M.; Murray, D.W.; Meyer, A.M.; Sparrow, J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    The words that comprise “self-regulation” (e.g., ‘self’ and ‘regulation’) may be problematic for many Native communities that emphasize community and learning through observing, internalizing, and doing.  Self-regulation may still be relevant for Native communities because self-regulation occurs in relationships, can be developed through a range of different ways of learning, and can serve the well-being of whole communities. (Author abstract)

     

    The words that comprise “self-regulation” (e.g., ‘self’ and ‘regulation’) may be problematic for many Native communities that emphasize community and learning through observing, internalizing, and doing.  Self-regulation may still be relevant for Native communities because self-regulation occurs in relationships, can be developed through a range of different ways of learning, and can serve the well-being of whole communities. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Germain, Justin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This report identifies the state of current research on the prevalence of opioid use disorder and treatment services among Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) participants and the TANF-eligible population. Additional emphasis is provided on how opioid use disorder negatively affects work-readiness and employment attainment. Funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Administration for Children and Families, this project aims to improve economic well-being and increase TANF agencies’ knowledge base. This report is based on a literature review of opioid use disorder treatment strategies and information on the effects of opioids in the TANF, TANF-eligible, and low-income populations.

    Opioid use disorder in the United States has skyrocketed since 2010. Opioids contributed to 42,249 American overdose deaths in 2016, and this rate continues to swell. Little contemporary research has been conducted on the effects of this surge on the TANF population. Existing research about the opioid crisis primarily focuses on its effects on the general population,...

    This report identifies the state of current research on the prevalence of opioid use disorder and treatment services among Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) participants and the TANF-eligible population. Additional emphasis is provided on how opioid use disorder negatively affects work-readiness and employment attainment. Funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Administration for Children and Families, this project aims to improve economic well-being and increase TANF agencies’ knowledge base. This report is based on a literature review of opioid use disorder treatment strategies and information on the effects of opioids in the TANF, TANF-eligible, and low-income populations.

    Opioid use disorder in the United States has skyrocketed since 2010. Opioids contributed to 42,249 American overdose deaths in 2016, and this rate continues to swell. Little contemporary research has been conducted on the effects of this surge on the TANF population. Existing research about the opioid crisis primarily focuses on its effects on the general population, while TANF-centered studies almost exclusively examine general substance use disorder. Available research suggests that opioid and substance use disorders are significant barriers to employment for low-income individuals. Treatment and prevention strategies that consider substance use disorders as one of many social, economic, and psychological barriers to employability tend to be more effective in promoting recovery and integration within the labor market. (Edited author introduction)

     

  • Individual Author: Bauer, Lauren; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore; Shambaugh, Jay
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Basic assistance programs such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and Medicaid ensure families have access to food and medical care when they are low-income. Some policymakers at the federal and state levels intend to add new work requirements to SNAP and Medicaid. In this paper, we analyze those who would be impacted by an expansion of work requirements in SNAP and an introduction of work requirements into Medicaid. We characterize the types of individuals who would face work requirements, describe their labor force experience over 24 consecutive months, and identify the reasons why they are not working if they experience a period of unemployment or labor force nonparticipation. We find that the majority of SNAP and Medicaid participants who would be exposed to work requirements are attached to the labor force, but that a substantial share would fail to consistently meet a 20 hours per week–threshold. Among persistent labor force nonparticipants, health issues are the predominant reason given for not working. There may be...

    Basic assistance programs such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and Medicaid ensure families have access to food and medical care when they are low-income. Some policymakers at the federal and state levels intend to add new work requirements to SNAP and Medicaid. In this paper, we analyze those who would be impacted by an expansion of work requirements in SNAP and an introduction of work requirements into Medicaid. We characterize the types of individuals who would face work requirements, describe their labor force experience over 24 consecutive months, and identify the reasons why they are not working if they experience a period of unemployment or labor force nonparticipation. We find that the majority of SNAP and Medicaid participants who would be exposed to work requirements are attached to the labor force, but that a substantial share would fail to consistently meet a 20 hours per week–threshold. Among persistent labor force nonparticipants, health issues are the predominant reason given for not working. There may be some subset of SNAP and Medicaid participants who could work, are not working, and might work if they were threatened with the loss of benefits. This paper adds evidence to a growing body of research that shows that this group is very small relative to those who would be sanctioned under the proposed policies who are already working or are legitimately unable to work. (Author abstract)

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