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  • Individual Author: Kneebone, Elizabeth; Berube, Alan
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2013

    Kneebone and Berube paint a new picture of poverty in America as well as the best ways to combat it. Confronting Suburban Poverty in America offers a series of workable recommendations for public, private, and nonprofit leaders seeking to modernize poverty alleviation and community development strategies and connect residents with economic opportunity. The authors highlight efforts in metro areas where local leaders are learning how to do more with less and adjusting their approaches to address the metropolitan scale of poverty —for example, integrating services and service delivery, collaborating across sectors and jurisdictions, and using data-driven and flexible funding strategies. (author abstract)

    Kneebone and Berube paint a new picture of poverty in America as well as the best ways to combat it. Confronting Suburban Poverty in America offers a series of workable recommendations for public, private, and nonprofit leaders seeking to modernize poverty alleviation and community development strategies and connect residents with economic opportunity. The authors highlight efforts in metro areas where local leaders are learning how to do more with less and adjusting their approaches to address the metropolitan scale of poverty —for example, integrating services and service delivery, collaborating across sectors and jurisdictions, and using data-driven and flexible funding strategies. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gould Ellen, Ingrid; O'Flaherty, Brendan
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2010

    How to House the Homeless, editors Ingrid Gould Ellen and Brendan O’Flaherty propose that the answers entail rethinking how housing markets operate and developing more efficient interventions in existing service programs. The book critically reassesses where we are now, analyzes the most promising policies and programs going forward, and offers a new agenda for future research.

    How to House the Homeless makes clear the inextricable link between homelessness and housing policy. Contributor Jill Khadduri reviews the current residential services system and housing subsidy programs. For the chronically homeless, she argues, a combination of assisted housing approaches can reach the greatest number of people and, specifically, an expanded Housing Choice Voucher system structured by location, income, and housing type can more efficiently reach people at-risk of becoming homeless and reduce time spent homeless. Robert Rosenheck examines the options available to homeless people with mental health problems and reviews the cost-effectiveness of five service models: system...

    How to House the Homeless, editors Ingrid Gould Ellen and Brendan O’Flaherty propose that the answers entail rethinking how housing markets operate and developing more efficient interventions in existing service programs. The book critically reassesses where we are now, analyzes the most promising policies and programs going forward, and offers a new agenda for future research.

    How to House the Homeless makes clear the inextricable link between homelessness and housing policy. Contributor Jill Khadduri reviews the current residential services system and housing subsidy programs. For the chronically homeless, she argues, a combination of assisted housing approaches can reach the greatest number of people and, specifically, an expanded Housing Choice Voucher system structured by location, income, and housing type can more efficiently reach people at-risk of becoming homeless and reduce time spent homeless. Robert Rosenheck examines the options available to homeless people with mental health problems and reviews the cost-effectiveness of five service models: system integration, supported housing, clinical case management, benefits outreach, and supported employment. He finds that only programs that subsidize housing make a noticeable dent in homelessness, and that no one program shows significant benefits in multiple domains of life.

    Contributor Sam Tsemberis assesses the development and cost-effectiveness of the Housing First program, which serves mentally ill homeless people in more than four hundred cities. He asserts that the program’s high housing retention rate and general effectiveness make it a viable candidate for replication across the country. Steven Raphael makes the case for a strong link between homelessness and local housing market regulations—which affect housing affordability—and shows that the problem is more prevalent in markets with stricter zoning laws. Finally, Brendan O'Flaherty bridges the theoretical gap between the worlds of public health and housing research, evaluating the pros and cons of subsidized housing programs and the economics at work in the rental housing market and home ownership. Ultimately, he suggests, the most viable strategies will serve as safety nets—“social insurance”—to reach people who are homeless now and to prevent homelessness in the future.

    It is crucial that the links between effective policy and the whole cycle of homelessness—life conditions, service systems, and housing markets—be made clear now. With a keen eye on the big picture of housing policy, How to House the Homeless shows what works and what doesn't in reducing the numbers of homeless and reaching those most at risk. (author abstract) 

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Introduction - Ingrid Gould Ellen and Brendan O'Flaherty

    Part I - Helping People Leave Homelessness

    Chapter 2: Service Models and Mental Health Problems: Cost-Effectiveness and Policy Relevance - Robert Rosenheck 

    Chapter 3: Housing First: Ending Homelessness, Promoting Recovery, and Reducing Costs - Sam Tsemberis

    Part II - Using Housing Policy to Prevent Homelessness

    Chapter 4: Rental Subsidies: Reducing Homelessness - Jill Khadduri

    Chapter 5: Fundamental Housing Policy Reforms to End Homelessness - Edgar Olsen

    Chapter 6: Housing Market Regulation and Homelessness - Steven Raphael 

    Part III - Managing Risk 

    Chapter 7: Homelessness as Bad Luck: Implications for Research and Policy - Brendan O'Flaherty

  • Individual Author: Hao, Lingxin
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2007

    The growing number of immigrants living and working in America has become a controversial topic from classrooms to corporations and from kitchen tables to Capitol Hill. Many native-born Americans fear that competition from new arrivals will undermine the economic standing of low-skilled American workers, and that immigrants may not successfully integrate into the U.S. economy. In Color Lines, Country Lines, sociologist Lingxin Hao argues that the current influx of immigrants is changing America’s class structure, but not in the ways commonly believed.

    Drawing on twenty years of national survey data, Color Lines, Country Lines investigates how immigrants are faring as they try to accumulate enough wealth to join the American middle class, and how, in the process, they are transforming historic links between race and socioeconomic status. Hao finds that disparities in wealth among immigrants are large and growing, including disparities among immigrants of the same race or ethnicity. Cuban immigrants have made substantially more progress than arrivals from the Dominican...

    The growing number of immigrants living and working in America has become a controversial topic from classrooms to corporations and from kitchen tables to Capitol Hill. Many native-born Americans fear that competition from new arrivals will undermine the economic standing of low-skilled American workers, and that immigrants may not successfully integrate into the U.S. economy. In Color Lines, Country Lines, sociologist Lingxin Hao argues that the current influx of immigrants is changing America’s class structure, but not in the ways commonly believed.

    Drawing on twenty years of national survey data, Color Lines, Country Lines investigates how immigrants are faring as they try to accumulate enough wealth to join the American middle class, and how, in the process, they are transforming historic links between race and socioeconomic status. Hao finds that disparities in wealth among immigrants are large and growing, including disparities among immigrants of the same race or ethnicity. Cuban immigrants have made substantially more progress than arrivals from the Dominican Republic, Chinese immigrants have had more success than Vietnamese or Korean immigrants, and Jamaicans have fared better than Haitians and immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, many of these immigrant groups have acquired more wealth than native-born Americans of the same race or ethnicity. Hao traces these diverging paths to differences in the political and educational systems of the immigrants’ home countries, as well as to preferential treatment of some groups by U.S. immigration authorities and the U.S. labor market. As a result, individuals’ country of origin increasingly matters more than their race in determining their prospects for acquiring wealth. In a novel analysis, Hao predicts that as large numbers of immigrants arrive in the United States every year, the variation in wealth within racial groups will continue to grow, reducing wealth inequalities between racial groups. If upward mobility remains restricted to only some groups, then the old divisions of wealth by race will gradually become secondary to new disparities based on country of origin. However, if the labor market and the government are receptive to all immigrant groups, then the assimilation of immigrants into the middle class will help diminish wealth inequality in society as a whole.

    Immigrants’ assimilation into the American mainstream and the impact of immigration on the American economy are inextricably linked, and each issue can only be understood in light of the other. Color Lines, Country Lines shows why some immigrant groups are struggling to get by while others have managed to achieve the American dream and reveals the surprising ways in which immigration is reshaping American society. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Danziger, Sheldon H.; Haveman, Robert H.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2002

    In spite of an unprecedented period of growth and prosperity, the poverty rate in the United States remains high relative to the levels of the early 1970s and relative to those in many industrialized countries today. Understanding Poverty brings the problem of poverty in America to the fore, focusing on its nature and extent at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

    Looking back over the four decades since the nation declared war on poverty, the authors ask how the poor have fared in the market economy, what government programs have and have not accomplished, and what remains to be done. They help us understand how changes in the way the labor market operates, in family structure, and in social welfare, health, and education policies have affected trends in poverty. Most significantly, they offer suggestions for changes in programs and policies that hold real promise for reducing poverty and income inequality. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents:

    I - Trends and Determinants of Poverty, Inequality, and Mobility

      ...

    In spite of an unprecedented period of growth and prosperity, the poverty rate in the United States remains high relative to the levels of the early 1970s and relative to those in many industrialized countries today. Understanding Poverty brings the problem of poverty in America to the fore, focusing on its nature and extent at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

    Looking back over the four decades since the nation declared war on poverty, the authors ask how the poor have fared in the market economy, what government programs have and have not accomplished, and what remains to be done. They help us understand how changes in the way the labor market operates, in family structure, and in social welfare, health, and education policies have affected trends in poverty. Most significantly, they offer suggestions for changes in programs and policies that hold real promise for reducing poverty and income inequality. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents:

    I - Trends and Determinants of Poverty, Inequality, and Mobility

    • Chapter 1: The Level, Trend, and Composition of Poverty – Gary Burtless and Timothy M. Smeeding
    • Chapter 2: Changes in Family Structure: Implications for Poverty and Related Policy – Maria Cancian and Deborah Reed
    • Chapter 3: The Rising Tide Lifts…? – Richard B. Freeman
    • Chapter 4: Mobility, Persistence, and the Consequences of Poverty for Children: Child and Adult Outcomes – Mary Corcoran
    • Chapter 5: U.S. Poverty in a Cross-national Context – Timothy M. Smeeding, Lee Rainwater, and Gary Burtless

    II – The Evolution of Antipoverty Policies

    • Chapter 6: The Evolution of Income Support Policy in Recent Decades – John Karl Scholz and Kara Levine
    • Chapter 7: Welfare Policy in Transition: Redefining the Social Contract for Poor Citizen Families with Children and for Immigrants – LaDonna A. Pavetti
    • Chapter 8: Health Policies for the Non-elderly Poor – John Mullahy and Barbara L. Wolfe
    • Chapter 9: Investing in the Future: Reducing Poverty Through Human Capital Investments – Lynn A. Karoly

    III – Neighborhoods, Groups, and Communities

    • Chapter 10: Housing Discrimination and Residential Segregation as Causes of Poverty – John Yinger
    • Chapter 11: The Memberships Theory of Poverty: The Role of Group Affiliations in Determining Socioeconomic Outcomes – Steven N. Durlauf
    • Chapter 12: Community Revitalization, Jobs, and the Well-being of the Inner-City Poor – Ronald F. Ferguson

    IV – Concluding Thoughts

    • Chapter 13: Politics, Race, and Poverty Research – Glenn C. Loury
    • Chapter 14: Poverty Research and Antipoverty Policy After the Technological Revolution – David R. Harris
    • Chapter 15: Research on Poverty and Antipoverty Policies – Jane Waldfogel
  • Individual Author: Duncan, Greg; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Aber, J. Lawrence
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between...

    Perhaps the most alarming phenomenon in American cities has been the transformation of many neighborhoods into isolated ghettos where poverty is the norm and violent crime, drug use, out-of-wedlock births, and soaring school dropout rates are rampant. Public concern over these destitute areas has focused on their most vulnerable inhabitants—children and adolescents. How profoundly does neighborhood poverty endanger their well-being and development? Is the influence of neighborhood more powerful than that of the family? Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children approaches these questions with an insightful and wide-ranging investigation into the effect of community poverty on children's physical health, cognitive and verbal abilities, educational attainment, and social adjustment.

    This two-volume set offers the most current research and analysis from experts in the fields of child development, social psychology, sociology and economics. Drawing from national and city-based sources, Volume I reports the empirical evidence concerning the relationship between children and community. As the essays demonstrate, poverty entails a host of problems that affects the quality of educational, recreational, and child care services. Poor neighborhoods usually share other negative features—particularly racial segregation and a preponderance of single mother families—that may adversely affect children. Yet children are not equally susceptible to the pitfalls of deprived communities. Neighborhood has different effects depending on a child's age, race, and gender, while parenting techniques and a family's degree of community involvement also serve as mitigating factors.

    Volume II incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The contributors point to promising community initiatives and suggest methods to strengthen neighborhood-based service programs for children. Several essays analyze the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the measurement of neighborhood characteristics. These essays focus on the need to expand scientific insight into urban poverty by drawing on broader pools of ethnographic, epidemiological, and quantitative data. Volume II explores the possibilities for a richer and more well-rounded understanding of neighborhood and poverty issues.

    To grasp the human cost of poverty, we must clearly understand how living in distressed neighborhoods impairs children's ability to function at every level. Neighborhood Poverty explores the multiple and complex paths between community, family, and childhood development. These two volumes provide and indispensable guide for social policy and demonstrate the power of interdisciplinary social science to probe complex social issues. (author abstract)

    Table of Contents

    Introduction - Martha Gephart and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    Chapter 1: Neighborhoods and Communities as Contexts for Development - Martha Gephart

    Chapter 2: Development in Context: Implications for Studying Neighborhood Effects - J. Lawrence Aber, Martha Gephart, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and James Connell

    Chapter 3: Neighborhood Models and Measures - Greg Duncan and J. Lawrence Aber

    Chapter 4: Neighborhood and Family Influences on the Intellectual and Behavioral Competence of Preschool and Early School-Age Children - P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Rachel Gordon, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Pamela Klebanov

    Chapter 5: Are Neighborhood Effects on Young Children Mediated by Features of the Home Environment? - Pamela Klebanov, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, and Rachel Gordon

    Chapter 6: Neighborhood and Family Factors Predicting Educational Risk and Attainment in African American and White Children and Adolescents - Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, James Connell, Margaret Beale Spencer, J. Lawrence Aber, Greg Duncan, Elizabeth Clifford, Warren Crichlow, Peter Usinger, Steven Cole, LaRue Allen, and Edward Seidman

    Chapter 7: How Neighborhoods Affect Educational Outcomes in Middle Childhood and Adolescence: Conceptual Issues and an Empirical Example - James Connell and Bonnie Halpern-Felsher

    Chapter 8: Neighborhood and Family Influences on Young Urban Adolescents' Behavior Problems: A Multisample, Multisite Analysis - Margaret Beale Spencer, Steven Cole, Stephanie Jones, and Dena Phillips Swanson

    Chapter 9: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Estimating Casual Effects of Neighborhoods and Family Conditions on Individual Development - Greg Duncan, James Connell, and Pamela Klebanov 

    Chapter 10: Neighborhood Effects and Federal Policy - Jeffrey Lehman and Timothy Smeeding 

    Chapter 11: Lessons Learned and Future Directions for Research on the Neighborhoods in Which Children Live - Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Greg Duncan, Tama Leventhal, and J. Lawrence Aber

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