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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Gelatt, Julia; Koball, Heather; Bernstein, Hamutal; Runes, Charmaine; Pratt, Eleanor
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Over seven million U.S. children live with at least one noncitizen parent -- and 80 percent of these children are US-born citizens. Close to 5 million US-citizen children live with an unauthorized immigrant parent, potentially subject to deportation. Research has shown that the deportation of a parent has serious deleterious effects on families—emotional distress, behavioral issues, and economic hardship for children—and that even the threat of deportation can hurt a family’s well-being by causing fear that restricts mobility, access to jobs, and use of public and private supports in times of need. The election of President Trump, with his plans to increase efforts to identify and deport unauthorized immigrants, has signaled a harsher policy environment for immigrant families than in recent years. In State Immigration Enforcement Policies: How They Impact Low-Income Households, researchers at NCCP, Urban Institute, and Migration Policy Institute looked at how the changing immigration policy environment is likely to affect immigrant families. Specifically, the report examines...

    Over seven million U.S. children live with at least one noncitizen parent -- and 80 percent of these children are US-born citizens. Close to 5 million US-citizen children live with an unauthorized immigrant parent, potentially subject to deportation. Research has shown that the deportation of a parent has serious deleterious effects on families—emotional distress, behavioral issues, and economic hardship for children—and that even the threat of deportation can hurt a family’s well-being by causing fear that restricts mobility, access to jobs, and use of public and private supports in times of need. The election of President Trump, with his plans to increase efforts to identify and deport unauthorized immigrants, has signaled a harsher policy environment for immigrant families than in recent years. In State Immigration Enforcement Policies: How They Impact Low-Income Households, researchers at NCCP, Urban Institute, and Migration Policy Institute looked at how the changing immigration policy environment is likely to affect immigrant families. Specifically, the report examines whether immigrant families living in states that ramped up enforcement of federal policy saw any changes in their material hardship, or how often fear of deportation affected their ability to pay for essentials (such as rent, utilities, or food). Developed with an interactive “State Immigration Policy Resource”, the report highlights important connections between immigration policy enforcement and well-being in immigrant households. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Pilkauskas, Natasha ; Michelmore, Katherine
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Housing instability (inability to pay rent, frequent moves, doubling up, eviction, or homelessness) is common among low-income households and is linked with a host of negative outcomes for families and children. As rents have risen and wages have not kept pace, housing affordability has declined over the last 15 years, increasing rates of housing instability. In this study, we examine whether the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), a key US social welfare policy and one of the largest cash transfer programs in the US, reduces housing instability. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we employ a simulated instruments strategy to examine whether policy-induced expansions in the EITC reduce housing instability. Results suggest that a $1,000 increase in the EITC reduces doubling up (living with other non-nuclear family adults) 3 to 5 percentage points. We find some suggestive evidence that the EITC decreases the average number of moves per year (0.05 moves). While our results suggest that the EITC...

    Housing instability (inability to pay rent, frequent moves, doubling up, eviction, or homelessness) is common among low-income households and is linked with a host of negative outcomes for families and children. As rents have risen and wages have not kept pace, housing affordability has declined over the last 15 years, increasing rates of housing instability. In this study, we examine whether the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), a key US social welfare policy and one of the largest cash transfer programs in the US, reduces housing instability. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we employ a simulated instruments strategy to examine whether policy-induced expansions in the EITC reduce housing instability. Results suggest that a $1,000 increase in the EITC reduces doubling up (living with other non-nuclear family adults) 3 to 5 percentage points. We find some suggestive evidence that the EITC decreases the average number of moves per year (0.05 moves). While our results suggest that the EITC does decrease certain, less severe forms of housing instability, we find no evidence that the EITC decreases more extreme (and rarer) forms of housing instability: eviction or homelessness. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rynell, Amy; Tuttle, Samantha; Buitrago, Katie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Chicago is currently facing a devastating surge in lethal violence in addition to staggering rates of poverty across Illinois. Policymakers and community leaders are struggling with finding short- and long-term solutions to stem the violence and allow neighborhoods to heal. In the meantime, communities are fearing for their own safety and grieving over lost parents, children, friends, and leaders every day. The stakes forgetting the solutions right could not be higher. Poverty and violence often intersect, feed one another, and share root causes. Neighborhoods with high levels of violence are also characterized by high levels of poverty, lack of adequate public services and educational opportunity, poorer health outcomes, asset and income inequality, and more. The underlying socioeconomic conditions in these neighborhoods perpetuate both violence and poverty. Furthermore, trauma can result from both violence and poverty. Unaddressed trauma worsens quality of life, makes it hard to rise out of poverty by posing barriers to success at school and work, and raises the likelihood of...

    Chicago is currently facing a devastating surge in lethal violence in addition to staggering rates of poverty across Illinois. Policymakers and community leaders are struggling with finding short- and long-term solutions to stem the violence and allow neighborhoods to heal. In the meantime, communities are fearing for their own safety and grieving over lost parents, children, friends, and leaders every day. The stakes forgetting the solutions right could not be higher. Poverty and violence often intersect, feed one another, and share root causes. Neighborhoods with high levels of violence are also characterized by high levels of poverty, lack of adequate public services and educational opportunity, poorer health outcomes, asset and income inequality, and more. The underlying socioeconomic conditions in these neighborhoods perpetuate both violence and poverty. Furthermore, trauma can result from both violence and poverty. Unaddressed trauma worsens quality of life, makes it hard to rise out of poverty by posing barriers to success at school and work, and raises the likelihood of aggressive behavior. In this way, untreated trauma—coupled with easy gun availability and other factors—feeds the cycle of poverty and violence. (Author desription)

  • Individual Author: DeLeire, Thomas; Hardy, Bradley; Bhattacharya, Jay
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Our research project addressed the question of how well SNAP and the social safety net protects families against the risk of food insecurity and poor health during economic downturns. Previous research has documented the relationship between reductions in family incomes and food insufficiency and has examined the effects of resources that mitigate the effects of income volatility. The U.S. social safety net, including SNAP, exists to mitigate the deleterious effects of swings in family income, particularly among low- and moderate-income households. This work compares outcomes for lower income families and higher income families in response to economic downturns. To the extent that nutritional, food security and food-related health outcomes are unaffected by economic downturns, there is implicit evidence that the social safety net is working to protect economically disadvantaged families. (Author abstract) 

    Our research project addressed the question of how well SNAP and the social safety net protects families against the risk of food insecurity and poor health during economic downturns. Previous research has documented the relationship between reductions in family incomes and food insufficiency and has examined the effects of resources that mitigate the effects of income volatility. The U.S. social safety net, including SNAP, exists to mitigate the deleterious effects of swings in family income, particularly among low- and moderate-income households. This work compares outcomes for lower income families and higher income families in response to economic downturns. To the extent that nutritional, food security and food-related health outcomes are unaffected by economic downturns, there is implicit evidence that the social safety net is working to protect economically disadvantaged families. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Austic, Elizabeth A.; Lawton, Emily; Riba, Melissa; Udow-Phillips, Marianne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    The uninsured rate has declined substantially since provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) came into effect. Nevertheless, many individuals continue to experience instability in insurance coverage. Transitions between different insurance plans, as well as between insured and uninsured status, are often referred to as “insurance churning.” The causes of insurance churning vary. Changes in job status may result in loss of coverage or transition to a new insurance plan. Eligibility for Medicaid or plans with marketplace subsidies may change based on changes in family composition or fluctuations in income. Nationally, three to five percent of members are dropped each month by health plans offered on the health insurance exchange due to non-payment of premiums. Between 2013 and 2015, data from the Census Bureau show that the proportion of Michiganders who reported no source of health insurance declined by five percentage points—from 11 percent to 6 percent.4 Using data from the Center for Healthcare Research & Transformation’s Cover Michigan Survey,...

    The uninsured rate has declined substantially since provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) came into effect. Nevertheless, many individuals continue to experience instability in insurance coverage. Transitions between different insurance plans, as well as between insured and uninsured status, are often referred to as “insurance churning.” The causes of insurance churning vary. Changes in job status may result in loss of coverage or transition to a new insurance plan. Eligibility for Medicaid or plans with marketplace subsidies may change based on changes in family composition or fluctuations in income. Nationally, three to five percent of members are dropped each month by health plans offered on the health insurance exchange due to non-payment of premiums. Between 2013 and 2015, data from the Census Bureau show that the proportion of Michiganders who reported no source of health insurance declined by five percentage points—from 11 percent to 6 percent.4 Using data from the Center for Healthcare Research & Transformation’s Cover Michigan Survey, this brief explores consumer experiences with insurance churning and access to care within the state of Michigan for approximately a one-year period in 2014–2015.

    Key Findings

    • Medicaid recipients had the most instability in their coverage status of all respondents to the survey.  Medicaid recipients were also seven times more likely to have experienced a temporary uninsured period in the past year compared to respondents with employer-sponsored or individual coverage. 
    • Those with individually purchased coverage in 2014 were the most likely to switch to a different type of coverage in 2015. Among respondents with an individually purchased plan in 2014, less than half re-enrolled in the same plan in 2015, and nearly a third transitioned to Medicare or to an employer-sponsored plan in 2015.
    • Those with employer-sponsored coverage experienced the least amount of churning compared to respondents with other coverage. Ninety-four percent of respondents with employer-sponsored coverage remained continuously insured from 2014 to 2015. (Author abstract)

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