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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Jardim, Ekaterina ; Long, Mark C.; Plotnick, Robert ; van Inwegen, Emma ; Vigdor, Jacob ; Wething, Hilary
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This paper evaluates the wage, employment, and hours effects of the first and second phase-in of the Seattle Minimum Wage Ordinance, which raised the minimum wage from $9.47 to $11 per hour in 2015 and to $13 per hour in 2016. Using a variety of methods to analyze employment in all sectors paying below a specified real hourly rate, we conclude that the second wage increase to $13 reduced hours worked in low-wage jobs by around 9 percent, while hourly wages in such jobs increased by around 3 percent. Consequently, total payroll fell for such jobs, implying that the minimum wage ordinance lowered low-wage employees’ earnings by an average of $125 per month in 2016. Evidence attributes more modest effects to the first wage increase. We estimate an effect of zero when analyzing employment in the restaurant industry at all wage levels, comparable to many prior studies. (Author abstract)

     

    This paper evaluates the wage, employment, and hours effects of the first and second phase-in of the Seattle Minimum Wage Ordinance, which raised the minimum wage from $9.47 to $11 per hour in 2015 and to $13 per hour in 2016. Using a variety of methods to analyze employment in all sectors paying below a specified real hourly rate, we conclude that the second wage increase to $13 reduced hours worked in low-wage jobs by around 9 percent, while hourly wages in such jobs increased by around 3 percent. Consequently, total payroll fell for such jobs, implying that the minimum wage ordinance lowered low-wage employees’ earnings by an average of $125 per month in 2016. Evidence attributes more modest effects to the first wage increase. We estimate an effect of zero when analyzing employment in the restaurant industry at all wage levels, comparable to many prior studies. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Lee, Hedwig; Andrew, Megan; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Lumeng, Julie C.; Lee, Joyce M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between timing of poverty and risk of first-incidence obesity from ages 3 to 15.5 years. Methods. We used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991–2007) to study 1150 children with repeated measures of income, weight, and height from birth to 15.5 years in 10 US cities. Our dependent variable was the first incidence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). We measured poverty (income-to-needs ratio < 2) prior to age 2 years and a lagged, time-varying measure of poverty between ages 2 and 12 years. We estimated discrete-time hazard models of the relative risk of first transition to obesity. Results. Poverty prior to age 2 years was associated with risk of obesity by age 15.5 years in fully adjusted models. These associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that there are enduring associations between early life poverty and adolescent obesity. This stage in the life course may serve as a critical...

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between timing of poverty and risk of first-incidence obesity from ages 3 to 15.5 years. Methods. We used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991–2007) to study 1150 children with repeated measures of income, weight, and height from birth to 15.5 years in 10 US cities. Our dependent variable was the first incidence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). We measured poverty (income-to-needs ratio < 2) prior to age 2 years and a lagged, time-varying measure of poverty between ages 2 and 12 years. We estimated discrete-time hazard models of the relative risk of first transition to obesity. Results. Poverty prior to age 2 years was associated with risk of obesity by age 15.5 years in fully adjusted models. These associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that there are enduring associations between early life poverty and adolescent obesity. This stage in the life course may serve as a critical period for both poverty and obesity prevention.  (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Burt, Martha R.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    This report addresses two questions: 1) What happens to homeless families who "graduate" from HUD-funded transitional housing (TH)? and 2) What factors affect housing, employment, and children's well-being after TH? Project sites included Cleveland/Cuyahoga County, Detroit, Houston/Harris County, San Diego City and County, and Seattle/King County. 195 families were interviewed as they left TH, with 179 (92 percent) completing 12 month follow-up interviews. Certain aspects of TH programs and the way that mothers used them affected mothers' education and employment immediately after TH and employment 12 months later. Having a housing voucher at TH exit was the strongest predictor of stable housing during the year following TH, but had no effect on employment outcomes. (author abstract)

    This report addresses two questions: 1) What happens to homeless families who "graduate" from HUD-funded transitional housing (TH)? and 2) What factors affect housing, employment, and children's well-being after TH? Project sites included Cleveland/Cuyahoga County, Detroit, Houston/Harris County, San Diego City and County, and Seattle/King County. 195 families were interviewed as they left TH, with 179 (92 percent) completing 12 month follow-up interviews. Certain aspects of TH programs and the way that mothers used them affected mothers' education and employment immediately after TH and employment 12 months later. Having a housing voucher at TH exit was the strongest predictor of stable housing during the year following TH, but had no effect on employment outcomes. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hendey, Leah; Kingsley, G. Thomas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    This report reviews recent trends for social and economic conditions in the 10 metropolitan areas that form the context for the neighborhood programs being implemented as a part of the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s Making Connections (MC) initiative. It finds that the sites are strikingly diverse along many dimensions and in are many ways representative of the diversity in conditions and trends across America’s metropolitan areas. In almost all cases, these areas’ economies followed the pattern of the nation over the past decade—booming in the late 1990s, declining over the first two years of this decade, and then partially recovering through 2007. But there were stark contrasts. Since 2002, for example, two MC metros attained among the nation’s highest rates of employment growth (Denver and Seattle) while two others experienced serious declines (Oakland and Milwaukee). Although there were important differences in magnitudes, all sites shared in a number of trends: minority groups growing as a share of total population and improvements in several social indicators (e.g., in crime...

    This report reviews recent trends for social and economic conditions in the 10 metropolitan areas that form the context for the neighborhood programs being implemented as a part of the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s Making Connections (MC) initiative. It finds that the sites are strikingly diverse along many dimensions and in are many ways representative of the diversity in conditions and trends across America’s metropolitan areas. In almost all cases, these areas’ economies followed the pattern of the nation over the past decade—booming in the late 1990s, declining over the first two years of this decade, and then partially recovering through 2007. But there were stark contrasts. Since 2002, for example, two MC metros attained among the nation’s highest rates of employment growth (Denver and Seattle) while two others experienced serious declines (Oakland and Milwaukee). Although there were important differences in magnitudes, all sites shared in a number of trends: minority groups growing as a share of total population and improvements in several social indicators (e.g., in crime and teen pregnancy) but, disturbingly, notable increases in child poverty. Through 2006, all 10 metros had also witnessed major increases in housing prices but again, differences were marked. Ratios of home prices to income were very high by U.S. standards in Oakland, Seattle, Denver, and Providence but below average in the other six sites. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Layzer, Jean I.; Goodson, Barbara D.; Brown-Lyons, Melanie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    The National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families was a ten-year research effort that was designed to provide policy-makers with information on the effects of Federal, state and local policies and programs on child care at the community level, and the employment and child care decisions of low-income families. It also provides insights into the characteristics and functioning of family child care, a type of care frequently used by low income families, and the experiences of parents and their children with this form of care. Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University’s Joseph Mailman School of Public Health in New York City conducted the study under contract to the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S.  Department of Health and Human Services.

    The study was initiated in the wake of sweeping welfare reform legislation enacted in 1996. The first component of the study examined how states and communities implemented policies and programs to meet the child care needs of families...

    The National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families was a ten-year research effort that was designed to provide policy-makers with information on the effects of Federal, state and local policies and programs on child care at the community level, and the employment and child care decisions of low-income families. It also provides insights into the characteristics and functioning of family child care, a type of care frequently used by low income families, and the experiences of parents and their children with this form of care. Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University’s Joseph Mailman School of Public Health in New York City conducted the study under contract to the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S.  Department of Health and Human Services.

    The study was initiated in the wake of sweeping welfare reform legislation enacted in 1996. The first component of the study examined how states and communities implemented policies and programs to meet the child care needs of families moving from welfare to work, as well as those of other low-income parents. A second study component investigated the factors that shaped the child care decisions of low-income families and the role that child care subsidies played in those decisions. Finally, the study examined, in depth and over a period of 2½ years, a group of families that used various kinds of family child care and their child care providers, to develop a better understanding of the family child care environment and the extent to which the care provided in that environment supported parents’ work related needs and met children’s needs for a safe, healthy and nurturing environment. To address these objectives, study staff gathered information from 17 states about the administration of child care and welfare policies and programs, and about resource allocations. Within the 17 states, the study gathered information from agency staff and other key informants in 25 communities about the implementation of state and local policies and the influence of those policies and practices on the local child care market and on low income families. Information on states was collected three times: in 1999, 2001 and in 2002, and on communities four times over the same period to allow us to investigate change over time in policies and practices. (author abstract)

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