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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Pinkett, Randal; Jones, Christopher; Crumel, Kenya ; Dong, Jie; Vandawalker, Melissa; Locke, Gretchen ; Khadduri, Jill
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    The Frank Melville Supportive Housing Investment Act of 2010 introduced significant reforms to the Section 811 supportive housing for non-elderly adults with disabilities, including the new Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) Program and a mandated evaluation of its implementation and effectiveness. The Phase I is an implementation evaluation focused on the initial 18 months (Jan 2015-June 2016) of program implementation by the first 12 grantees funded through the Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 grant competition. It provides an overall picture of how the demonstration was implemented in the initial states and analyzes differences in program design, target population, and housing and service strategies. The overarching research questions include an assessment of the following aspects of program implementation: partnerships between state housing and health and human services or Medicaid agencies; property and unit selection strategies; target population outreach and referral approaches; supportive services availability; and major challenges and successes. Grantees spent much of the...

    The Frank Melville Supportive Housing Investment Act of 2010 introduced significant reforms to the Section 811 supportive housing for non-elderly adults with disabilities, including the new Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) Program and a mandated evaluation of its implementation and effectiveness. The Phase I is an implementation evaluation focused on the initial 18 months (Jan 2015-June 2016) of program implementation by the first 12 grantees funded through the Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 grant competition. It provides an overall picture of how the demonstration was implemented in the initial states and analyzes differences in program design, target population, and housing and service strategies. The overarching research questions include an assessment of the following aspects of program implementation: partnerships between state housing and health and human services or Medicaid agencies; property and unit selection strategies; target population outreach and referral approaches; supportive services availability; and major challenges and successes. Grantees spent much of the period covered by Phase I of the evaluation solidifying partner roles and responsibilities and developing the systems and procedures needed to accommodate this new and complex approach to providing affordable housing for people with disabilities. The pace of attracting properties and units to the program and leasing units has been slower than HUD and grantees expected for a variety of reasons, such as tight housing market conditions (high-price and low-vacancy), difficulty aligning housing and services, program requirements, and location mismatch. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Northrop, Rebecca; Jones, Christopher; Laluces, Dalton; Green, La Tonya; Crumel, Kenya; Vandawalker, Melissa; Henry, Meghan; Solari, Claudia D.; Locke, Gretchen; Khadduri, Jill
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    The Frank Melville Supportive Housing Investment Act of 2010 introduced significant reforms to the Section 811 supportive housing for non-elderly adults with disabilities, including the new Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) Program and a mandated evaluation of its implementation and effectiveness. The Phase I is an implementation evaluation focused on the initial 18 months (Jan 2015-June 2016) of program implementation by the first 12 grantees funded through the Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 grant competition. It provides an overall picture of how the demonstration was implemented in the initial states and analyzes differences in program design, target population, and housing and service strategies. The overarching research questions include an assessment of the following aspects of program implementation: partnerships between state housing and health and human services or Medicaid agencies; property and unit selection strategies; target population outreach and referral approaches; supportive services availability; and major challenges and successes. Grantees spent much of the...

    The Frank Melville Supportive Housing Investment Act of 2010 introduced significant reforms to the Section 811 supportive housing for non-elderly adults with disabilities, including the new Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) Program and a mandated evaluation of its implementation and effectiveness. The Phase I is an implementation evaluation focused on the initial 18 months (Jan 2015-June 2016) of program implementation by the first 12 grantees funded through the Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 grant competition. It provides an overall picture of how the demonstration was implemented in the initial states and analyzes differences in program design, target population, and housing and service strategies. The overarching research questions include an assessment of the following aspects of program implementation: partnerships between state housing and health and human services or Medicaid agencies; property and unit selection strategies; target population outreach and referral approaches; supportive services availability; and major challenges and successes. Grantees spent much of the period covered by Phase I of the evaluation solidifying partner roles and responsibilities and developing the systems and procedures needed to accommodate this new and complex approach to providing affordable housing for people with disabilities. The pace of attracting properties and units to the program and leasing units has been slower than HUD and grantees expected for a variety of reasons, such as tight housing market conditions (high-price and low-vacancy), difficulty aligning housing and services, program requirements, and location mismatch. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Briefel, Ronette; Melia, Micah; Harvey, Bonnie; Forrestal, Sarah; Chojnacki, Gregory ; Caronongan, Pia; Gothro, Andrew; Cabili, Charlotte; Kleinman, Rebecca; Gabor, Vivian; Redel, Nicholas; Gleason, Philip
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This study—authorized by the 2010 Child Nutrition Act—tests innovative strategies to end childhood hunger and food insecurity. The interim evaluation report describes (1) the demonstration projects, (2) planning and early implementation activities, and (3) findings from the baseline data collection for four projects located within Chickasaw Nation, Kentucky, Nevada, and Virginia. A fifth demonstration project was implemented in Navajo Nation but not evaluated due to changes in program design. The demonstrations occurred during 2015-2017 and operated for 12 to 24 months. (Author abstract) 

    This study—authorized by the 2010 Child Nutrition Act—tests innovative strategies to end childhood hunger and food insecurity. The interim evaluation report describes (1) the demonstration projects, (2) planning and early implementation activities, and (3) findings from the baseline data collection for four projects located within Chickasaw Nation, Kentucky, Nevada, and Virginia. A fifth demonstration project was implemented in Navajo Nation but not evaluated due to changes in program design. The demonstrations occurred during 2015-2017 and operated for 12 to 24 months. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Martinson, Karin; Copson, Elizabeth; Gardiner, Karen; Kitrosser, Daniel
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous...

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous research design, the study found that the Carreras en Salud program increased hours of occupational training and basic skills instruction received and the attainment of education credentials within an 18-month follow-up period. The program also increased employment in the healthcare field and resulted in a reduction of participants reporting financial hardship. Future reports will examine whether these effects translate into gains in employment and earnings. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Larin, Kathryn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and administered by states, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) programs served about 0.5 percent of the approximately 43.5 million SNAP recipients in an average month of fiscal year 2016, according to the most recent USDA data available. These programs are generally designed to help SNAP recipients increase their ability to obtain regular employment through services such as job search and training. Some recipients may be required to participate. According to USDA, about 14 percent of SNAP recipients were subject to work requirements in an average month of fiscal year 2016, while others, such as children and the elderly, were generally exempt from these requirements. States have flexibility in how they design their E&T programs. Over the last several years, states have 1) increasingly moved away from programs that mandate participation, 2) focused on serving able-bodied adults without dependents whose benefits are generally time-limited unless they comply with work...

    Overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and administered by states, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) programs served about 0.5 percent of the approximately 43.5 million SNAP recipients in an average month of fiscal year 2016, according to the most recent USDA data available. These programs are generally designed to help SNAP recipients increase their ability to obtain regular employment through services such as job search and training. Some recipients may be required to participate. According to USDA, about 14 percent of SNAP recipients were subject to work requirements in an average month of fiscal year 2016, while others, such as children and the elderly, were generally exempt from these requirements. States have flexibility in how they design their E&T programs. Over the last several years, states have 1) increasingly moved away from programs that mandate participation, 2) focused on serving able-bodied adults without dependents whose benefits are generally time-limited unless they comply with work requirements, and 3) partnered with state and local organizations to deliver services. USDA has taken steps to increase support and oversight of SNAP E&T since 2014, including collecting new data on participant outcomes from states. GAO has ongoing work reviewing SNAP E&T programs, including USDA oversight. USDA and the states partner to address issues that affect program integrity, including improper payments and fraud, and USDA has taken some steps to address challenges in these areas, but issues remain. 

    • Improper Payments. In 2016, GAO reviewed SNAP improper payment rates and found that states’ adoption of program flexibilities and changes in federal SNAP policy in the previous decade, as well as improper payment rate calculation methods, likely affected these rates. Although USDA reported improper payment estimates for SNAP in previous years, USDA did not report an estimate for benefits paid in fiscal years 2015 or 2016 due to data quality issues in some states. USDA has since been working with the states to improve improper payment estimates for the fiscal year 2017 review.
    • Recipient Fraud. In 2014, GAO made recommendations to USDA to address challenges states faced in combatting recipient fraud. For example, GAO found that USDA’s guidance on the use of transaction data to uncover potential trafficking lacked specificity and recommended USDA develop additional guidance. Since then, USDA has provided technical assistance to some states, including on the use of data analytics. GAO has ongoing work reviewing states’ use of data analytics to identify SNAP recipient fraud.
    • Retailer Trafficking. In 2006, GAO identified several ways in which SNAP was vulnerable to retailer trafficking—a practice involving the exchange of benefits for cash or non-food items. For example, USDA had not conducted analyses to identify high-risk retailers and target its resources. Since then, USDA has established risk levels for retailers based on various factors. GAO has ongoing work assessing how USDA prevents, detects, and responds to retailer trafficking and reviewing the usefulness of USDA’s estimates of the extent of SNAP retailer trafficking. (Author introduction)

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