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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Rowe, Gretchen; Giannarelli, Linda
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    Congress reauthorized TANF in February 2006 as part of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. The changes included under reauthorization will require most states to greatly increase work participation among their caseloads in order to avoid financial penalties and could cause many states to rethink their current welfare policies overall. This marks a good time to review states' current rules, which provides a benchmark against which future changes can be assessed. This brief reviews the multiple ways a family can get on welfare, stay on, and leave (or lose) assistance. It uses the Urban Institute's Welfare Rules Database (WRD) to examine the variation in key policies as of 2003. (Author abstract)

    Congress reauthorized TANF in February 2006 as part of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. The changes included under reauthorization will require most states to greatly increase work participation among their caseloads in order to avoid financial penalties and could cause many states to rethink their current welfare policies overall. This marks a good time to review states' current rules, which provides a benchmark against which future changes can be assessed. This brief reviews the multiple ways a family can get on welfare, stay on, and leave (or lose) assistance. It uses the Urban Institute's Welfare Rules Database (WRD) to examine the variation in key policies as of 2003. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Maloy, Kathleen A.; Pavetti, LaDonna A.; Darnell, Julie; Shin, Peter
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the individual entitlement to welfare benefits and gave states new flexibility to emphasize work instead welfare. PRWORA also severed the traditional eligibility link between Medicaid and welfare. This research examined the emergence of diversion programs as a particular aspect of state welfare reform efforts and the potential for diversion programs to reduce access to Medicaid. In this second of two reports, we present the results of case studies in five states.

    Major findings from this research are:

    • Formal strategies to divert families from welfare are an increasingly common aspect of states' efforts to shift to a work-oriented assistance system. These efforts to emphasize work instead of welfare on the “front end” can also result in informal diversion.
    • Design and implementation of diversion programs reflect state and/or local goals and philosophies; these five states represent a range of diversion strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding key...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the individual entitlement to welfare benefits and gave states new flexibility to emphasize work instead welfare. PRWORA also severed the traditional eligibility link between Medicaid and welfare. This research examined the emergence of diversion programs as a particular aspect of state welfare reform efforts and the potential for diversion programs to reduce access to Medicaid. In this second of two reports, we present the results of case studies in five states.

    Major findings from this research are:

    • Formal strategies to divert families from welfare are an increasingly common aspect of states' efforts to shift to a work-oriented assistance system. These efforts to emphasize work instead of welfare on the “front end” can also result in informal diversion.
    • Design and implementation of diversion programs reflect state and/or local goals and philosophies; these five states represent a range of diversion strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding key design and implementation choices in each state and, in some cases, each local office within a state.
    • Of the three types of formal diversion, mandatory applicant job search represents the fastest growing program with the greatest potential to divert large numbers of families.
    • Diversion, both formal and informal, has substantial potential to reduce initial access to Medicaid, particularly as families increasingly bypass welfare or go to work quickly thereby becoming ineligible for Medicaid under most states’ current eligibility criteria.
    • State officials can ameliorate this effect on Medicaid by improving implementation efforts and taking advantage of policy options under Section 1931 to focus attention on Medicaid as a stand-alone health insurance program for low-income families.
    • The compelling Medicaid and welfare reform policy challenge posed by diversion is how to use Medicaid effectively to support the welfare reform goal to promote work. Because PRWORA fundamentally changed the nature of the welfare system, states can and should consider whether it is a desirable consequence of their Medicaid and welfare policies that access to Medicaid for diverted families is limited or unavailable.
    • Little information is available on the number and circumstances of families who have been diverted from the welfare rolls. Without such information, reports on the success or failure of state welfare reform efforts will be incomplete.

    (author abstract)