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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Parness, Jeffrey A.; Timko, Matthew
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Traditionally, American state laws have recognized that the federal constitutional right to the “care, custody, and control” of a child vests in either the heterosexual birth parents or the adoptive parents of the child. Recently, state laws have also recognized this parental right of “care, custody, and control” to opposite sex unmarried couples who bore the child of sex. Even more recently, state laws have recognized this parental right for those who did not engage in sexual intercourse leading to a pregnancy and birth. State laws have also increasingly limited this childcare right of traditionally recognized parents by allowing nonparents to secure court-ordered childcare over the objections of current parents, whether by recognizing these nonparents as de facto parents or as third parties with childcare standing. While state childcare law opportunities have evolved significantly as family structures, genetic testing, and assisted reproduction techniques have changed, the laws on parental and nonparental child support have not changed much. This Article explores actual and...

    Traditionally, American state laws have recognized that the federal constitutional right to the “care, custody, and control” of a child vests in either the heterosexual birth parents or the adoptive parents of the child. Recently, state laws have also recognized this parental right of “care, custody, and control” to opposite sex unmarried couples who bore the child of sex. Even more recently, state laws have recognized this parental right for those who did not engage in sexual intercourse leading to a pregnancy and birth. State laws have also increasingly limited this childcare right of traditionally recognized parents by allowing nonparents to secure court-ordered childcare over the objections of current parents, whether by recognizing these nonparents as de facto parents or as third parties with childcare standing. While state childcare law opportunities have evolved significantly as family structures, genetic testing, and assisted reproduction techniques have changed, the laws on parental and nonparental child support have not changed much. This Article explores actual and potential child support laws arising from the new childcare laws for both parents and nonparents. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Beltran, Ana
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2014

    In 1996, Congress explicitly envisioned Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) as a critical support for kinship families or grandfamilies -- families in which children are being raised by kin who are extended family members and close family friends. Almost two decades later, kin continue to rely on TANF as often the only source of financial support for helping them keep the families they raise together and out of the formal foster care system. Although TANF policy explicitly states that children cared for by relatives can receive TANF assistance, many kin families do not access it to meet the needs of children they are unexpectedly raising. Only about 12 percent of kinship families receive any TANF assistance, even though the majority of children being raised by kin live in poverty and qualify for the program.

    This brief highlights states and counties that improve access for kinship families by making these types of exceptions and by creating other policies, practices, and programs that address the challenges the existing TANF framework poses. The May 2012 Annie E...

    In 1996, Congress explicitly envisioned Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) as a critical support for kinship families or grandfamilies -- families in which children are being raised by kin who are extended family members and close family friends. Almost two decades later, kin continue to rely on TANF as often the only source of financial support for helping them keep the families they raise together and out of the formal foster care system. Although TANF policy explicitly states that children cared for by relatives can receive TANF assistance, many kin families do not access it to meet the needs of children they are unexpectedly raising. Only about 12 percent of kinship families receive any TANF assistance, even though the majority of children being raised by kin live in poverty and qualify for the program.

    This brief highlights states and counties that improve access for kinship families by making these types of exceptions and by creating other policies, practices, and programs that address the challenges the existing TANF framework poses. The May 2012 Annie E. Casey Foundation Kids Count essay, "Stepping Up For Kids", urges states and communities to ensure that kinship families have access to benefits to which they are eligible. In this brief, we provide state and community policymakers and advocates with a Kinship TANF Model that outlines ways in which they can help ensure that kinship families have access to TANF. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Kids Count
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    In this policy report, the Annie E. Casey Foundation explores the increased number of children living with extended family and close friends, a longtime practice known as kinship care. "Stepping Up for Kids: What Government and Communities Should Do to Support Kinship Families" includes the latest data for states, the District of Columbia, and the nation, as well as a set of recommendations on how to support kinship families. (author abstract)

    In this policy report, the Annie E. Casey Foundation explores the increased number of children living with extended family and close friends, a longtime practice known as kinship care. "Stepping Up for Kids: What Government and Communities Should Do to Support Kinship Families" includes the latest data for states, the District of Columbia, and the nation, as well as a set of recommendations on how to support kinship families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Morgan, Laura W.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    The article presents information on various developments in the laws concerning child support in the last fifty years in the U.S. Fifty years ago, the right to child support was based on the recognized principle that every child has the right to be supported by his or her parents. Child support orders, however, were based on the amorphous twin precepts of an obligor's ability to pay as weighed against the needs of the child. In the years 1988-98, the federal government enacted legislation mandating that the States enact child support guidelines and a panoply of child-support-enforcement procedures. Modern child support law has its primary origins in Title IV-A of the Social Security Act of 1935, Aid to Families with Dependent Children. (Author abstract)

    The article presents information on various developments in the laws concerning child support in the last fifty years in the U.S. Fifty years ago, the right to child support was based on the recognized principle that every child has the right to be supported by his or her parents. Child support orders, however, were based on the amorphous twin precepts of an obligor's ability to pay as weighed against the needs of the child. In the years 1988-98, the federal government enacted legislation mandating that the States enact child support guidelines and a panoply of child-support-enforcement procedures. Modern child support law has its primary origins in Title IV-A of the Social Security Act of 1935, Aid to Families with Dependent Children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ehrle, Jennifer; Geen, Rob
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    This article uses national data to look at the differences between children in kinship and non-kinship care arrangements. Three groups are compared: children in non-kin foster care, children in kinship foster care, and children in “voluntary” kinship care. Children in voluntary kinship care have come to the attention of child welfare services, are placed with kin, but unlike those in kinship foster care, these children are not in state custody. Findings suggest that children in the kin arrangements faced greater hardships than those in non-kin care. They more often lived in poor families and experienced food insecurity. They were more likely to live with a non-married caregiver who was not working and did not have a high school degree. And fewer kin than expected received services to overcome these hardships. In addition, nearly 300,000 children lived in voluntary kinship care arrangements; these children are of particular concern because they are not in state custody and therefore may or may not be monitored by a child welfare agency. (author abstract)

    This article uses national data to look at the differences between children in kinship and non-kinship care arrangements. Three groups are compared: children in non-kin foster care, children in kinship foster care, and children in “voluntary” kinship care. Children in voluntary kinship care have come to the attention of child welfare services, are placed with kin, but unlike those in kinship foster care, these children are not in state custody. Findings suggest that children in the kin arrangements faced greater hardships than those in non-kin care. They more often lived in poor families and experienced food insecurity. They were more likely to live with a non-married caregiver who was not working and did not have a high school degree. And fewer kin than expected received services to overcome these hardships. In addition, nearly 300,000 children lived in voluntary kinship care arrangements; these children are of particular concern because they are not in state custody and therefore may or may not be monitored by a child welfare agency. (author abstract)